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Australia Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Oceania, continent between the Indian Ocean and the South Pacific Ocean


Geographic coordinates:
27 00 S, 133 00 E


Map references:
Oceania


Area:
total:7,741,220 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 6
land:7,682,300 sq km
water:58,920 sq km
note:includes Lord Howe Island and Macquarie Island


Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>


Land boundaries:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


Climate:
generally arid to semiarid; temperate in south and east; tropical in north


Terrain:
mostly low plateau with deserts; fertile plain in southeast


Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Lake Eyre -15 m
highest point:Mount Kosciuszko 2,229 m


    Natural resources:
bauxite, coal, iron ore, copper, tin, gold, silver, uranium, nickel, tungsten, rare earth elements, mineral sands, lead, zinc, diamonds, natural gas, petroleum


Land use:
arable land:6.16% (includes about 27 million hectares of cultivated grassland)
permanent crops:0.05%
other:93.79% (2011)


Irrigated land:
25,460 sq km (2006)


Total renewable water resources:
492 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
492 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
cyclones along the coast; severe droughts; forest fires


Environment - current issues:
soil erosion from overgrazing, industrial development, urbanization, and poor farming practices; soil salinity rising due to the use of poor quality water; desertification; clearing for agricultural purposes threatens the natural habitat of many unique animal and plant species; the Great Barrier Reef off the northeast coast, the largest coral reef in the world, is threatened by increased shipping and its popularity as a tourist site; limited natural freshwater resources


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements


Geography - note:
world's smallest continent but sixth-largest country; the largest country in Oceania, the largest country entirely in the Southern Hemisphere, and the largest country without land borders; the only continent without glaciers; population concentrated along the eastern and southeastern coasts; the invigorating sea breeze known as the 'Fremantle Doctor' affects the city of Perth on the west coast and is one of the most consistent winds in the world



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Australian(s)
adjective:Australian


Ethnic groups:
white 92%, Asian 7%, aboriginal and other 1%


Languages:
English 76.8%, Mandarin 1.6%, Italian 1.4%, Arabic 1.3%, Greek 1.2%, Cantonese 1.2%, Vietnamese 1.1%, other 10.4%, unspecified 5% (2011 est.)


Religions:
Protestant 28.8% (Anglican 17.1%, Uniting Church 5.0%, Presbyterian and Reformed 2.8%, Baptist, 1.6%, Lutheran 1.2%, Pentecostal 1.1%), Catholic 25.3%, Eastern Orthodox 2.6%, other Christian 4.5%, Buddhist 2.5%, Muslim 2.2%, Hindu 1.3%, other 8.4%, unspecified 2.2%, none 22.3%


Population:
22,507,617 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 56


Age structure:
0-14 years:18% (male 2,075,316/female 1,969,645)
15-24 years:13.3% (male 1,534,947/female 1,457,250)
25-54 years:41.8% (male 4,783,473/female 4,626,603)
55-64 years:11.8% (male 1,321,246/female 1,341,329)
65 years and over:15.1% (male 1,569,197/female 1,828,611) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:51 %
youth dependency ratio:28.9 %
elderly dependency ratio:22.1 %
potential support ratio:4.5 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:38.3 years
male:37.5 years
female:39 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
1.09% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 112


Birth rate:
12.19 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 162


Death rate:
7.07 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 130


Net migration rate:
5.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 23


Urbanization:
urban population:89.2% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:1.49% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
Sydney 4.543 million; Melbourne 3.961 million; Brisbane 2.039 million; Perth 1.649 million; Adelaide 1.198 million; CANBERRA (capital) 399,000 (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years:1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.85 male(s)/female
total population:1.01 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
30.5 (2006 est.)


Maternal mortality rate:
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:4.43 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 190
male:4.74 deaths/1,000 live births
female:4.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:82.07 yearscountry comparison to the world: 10
male:79.63 years
female:84.64 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
1.77 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 162


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
72.3%


Health expenditures:
9% of GDP (2011)


Physicians density:
3.85 physicians/1,000 population (2010)


Hospital bed density:
3.9 beds/1,000 population (2010)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 125


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
20,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 81


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 100 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 123


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
26.8% (2008)country comparison to the world: 44


Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
0.2% (2007)country comparison to the world: 136


Education expenditures:
5.6% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 56

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:99%
male:99%
female:99% (2003 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:20 years
male:19 years
female:20 years (2011)


Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:11.7%country comparison to the world: 102
male:12.4%
female:11% (2012)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: Commonwealth of Australia
conventional short form:Australia


Government type:
federal parliamentary democracy and a Commonwealth realm


Capital:
name:Canberra
geographic coordinates:35 16 S, 149 08 E
time difference:UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins first Sunday in October; ends first Sunday in April
note:Australia has three time zones


Administrative divisions:
6 states and 2 territories*; Australian Capital Territory*, New South Wales, Northern Territory*, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia


Dependent areas:
Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Macquarie Island, Norfolk Island


Independence:
1 January 1901 (from the federation of UK colonies)


National holiday:
Australia Day (commemorates the arrival of the First Fleet of Australian settlers), 26 January (1788); ANZAC Day (commemorates the anniversary of the landing of troops of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during World War I at Gallipoli, Turkey), 25 April (1915)


Constitution:
9 July 1900; effective 1 January 1901; amended several times, last in 1977; note - a referendum to amend the constitution to reflect the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Recognition Act 2013 is to be completed by the end of 2014 (2013)


Legal system:
common law system based on the English model


International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory


Executive branch:
chief of state:Queen of Australia ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor General Sir Peter COSGROVE (since 28 March 2014)
head of government:Prime Minister Anthony John 'Tony' ABBOTT (since 18 September 2013); Deputy Prime Minister Warren TRUSS (since 18 September 2013)
cabinet:prime minister nominates, from among members of Parliament, candidates who are subsequently sworn in by the governor general to serve as government ministers
elections:the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch on the recommendation of the prime minister; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is sworn in as prime minister by the governor general


Legislative branch:
bicameral Federal Parliament consists of the Senate (76 seats; 12 members from each of the six states and 2 from each of the two mainland territories; one-half of state members are elected every three years by popular vote to serve six-year terms while all territory members are elected every three years) and the House of Representatives (150 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve terms of up to three-years; no state can have fewer than 5 representatives)
elections:Senate - last held on 7 September 2013; House of Representatives - last held on 7 September 2013 (the latest a simultaneous half-Senate and House of Representative elections can be held is 30 November 2016)
election results:Senate NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - Liberal/National Coalition 53.45%, Australian Labor Party 46.55%; seats by party - Liberal/National Coalition 90 (Liberal 58, Liberal National 22, Nationals 9, Country Liberals 1), Australian Labor Party 55, Australian Greens Party 1, Katter's Australian Party 1, Palmer United Party 1, independents 2


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):High Court of Australia (consists of 7 justices, including the chief justice); note - each of the 6 states, 2 territories, and Norfolk Island has a Supreme Court; the High Court is the final appellate court beyond the state and territory supreme courts
judge selection and term of office:justices appointed by the governor-general in council for life with mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts:subordinate courts at the federal level: Federal Court; Federal Magistrates' Courts of Australia; Family Court; subordinate courts at the state and territory level: Local Court - New South Wales; Magistrates' Courts – Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia, Tasmania, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory; District Courts – New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia; County Court – Victoria; Family Court – Western Australia; Court of Petty Sessions – Norfolk Island


    Political parties and leaders:
Australian Greens Party [Christine MILNE]
Australian Labor Party [Bill SHORTEN]
Country Liberal Party [Terry MILLS]
Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]
Katter's Australian Party [Bob KATTER]
Liberal National Party of Queensland [Campbell NEWMAN]
Liberal Party [Tony ABBOTT]
National Party of Australia [Warren TRUSS]
Palmer United Party [Clive PALMER]


Political pressure groups and leaders:
Australian Greens Party [Christine MILNE]
Australian Labor Party [Bill SHORTEN]
Country Liberal Party [Terry MILLS]
Family First Party [Steve FIELDING]
Katter's Australian Party [Bob KATTER]
Liberal National Party of Queensland [Campbell NEWMAN]
Liberal Party [Tony ABBOTT]
National Party of Australia [Warren TRUSS]
Palmer United Party [Clive PALMER]



International organization participation:
ADB, ANZUS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), Australia Group, BIS, C, CD, CP, EAS, EBRD, EITI (implementing country), FAO, FATF, G-20, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE (partner), Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF, SAARC (observer), SICA (observer), Sparteca, SPC, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Kim Christian BEAZLEY (since 7 February 2010)
chancery:1601 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone:[1] (202) 797-3000
FAX:[1] (202) 797-3168
consulate(s) general:Atlanta, Chicago, Honolulu, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador John BERRY (since 25 September 2013)
embassy:Moonah Place, Yarralumla, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 2600
mailing address:APO AP 96549
telephone:[61] (02) 6214-5600
FAX:[61] (02) 6214-5970
consulate(s) general:Melbourne, Perth, Sydney


Flag description:
blue with the flag of the UK in the upper hoist-side quadrant and a large seven-pointed star in the lower hoist-side quadrant known as the Commonwealth or Federation Star, representing the federation of the colonies of Australia in 1901; the star depicts one point for each of the six original states and one representing all of Australia's internal and external territories; on the fly half is a representation of the Southern Cross constellation in white with one small, five-pointed star and four larger, seven-pointed stars


National symbol(s):
Southern Cross constellation (five, seven-pointed stars); kangaroo; emu


National anthem:
name:'Advance Australia Fair'

lyrics/music:Peter Dodds McCORMICK
note:adopted 1984; although originally written in the late 19th century, the anthem did not become used for all official occasions until 1984; as a Commonwealth country, in addition to the national anthem, 'God Save the Queen' is also played at Royal functions (see United Kingdom)


Economy


Economy - overview:
The Australian economy has experienced continuous growth and features low unemployment, contained inflation, very low public debt, and a strong and stable financial system. By 2012, Australia had experienced more than 20 years of continued economic growth, averaging 3.5% a year. Demand for resources and energy from Asia and especially China has grown rapidly, creating a channel for resources investments and growth in commodity exports. The high Australian dollar has hurt the manufacturing sector, while the services sector is the largest part of the Australian economy, accounting for about 70% of GDP and 75% of jobs. Australia was comparatively unaffected by the global financial crisis as the banking system has remained strong and inflation is under control. Australia has benefited from a dramatic surge in its terms of trade in recent years, stemming from rising global commodity prices. Australia is a significant exporter of natural resources, energy, and food. Australia's abundant and diverse natural resources attract high levels of foreign investment and include extensive reserves of coal, iron, copper, gold, natural gas, uranium, and renewable energy sources. A series of major investments, such as the US$40 billion Gorgon Liquid Natural Gas project, will significantly expand the resources sector. Australia is an open market with minimal restrictions on imports of goods and services. The process of opening up has increased productivity, stimulated growth, and made the economy more flexible and dynamic. Australia plays an active role in the World Trade Organization, APEC, the G20, and other trade forums. Australia has bilateral free trade agreements (FTAs) with Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, Thailand, and the US, has a regional FTA with ASEAN and New Zealand, is negotiating agreements with China, India, Indonesia, Japan, and the Republic of Korea, as well as with its Pacific neighbors and the Gulf Cooperation Council countries, and is also working on the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement with Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, the US, and Vietnam.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$998.3 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18
$974.2 billion (2012 est.)
$939.7 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.488 trillion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
2.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
3.7% (2012 est.)
2.4% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$43,000 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
$42,500 (2012 est.)
$41,700 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
24.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
25.2% of GDP (2012 est.)
25.1% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:54.6%
government consumption:17.8%
investment in fixed capital:27.4%
investment in inventories:0.1%
exports of goods and services:20.9%
imports of goods and services:-20.8%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:3.8%
industry:27.4%
services:68.7% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
wheat, barley, sugarcane, fruits; cattle, sheep, poultry


Industries:
mining, industrial and transportation equipment, food processing, chemicals, steel


Industrial production growth rate:
3.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91

Labor force:
12.44 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:3.6%
industry:21.1%
services:75% (2009 est.)


Unemployment rate:
5.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53
5.2% (2012 est.)


Population below poverty line:
NA%


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:2%
highest 10%:25.4% (1994)


    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
30.3 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 120
35.2 (1994)


Budget:
revenues:$494.3 billion
expenditures:$514.4 billion (2013 est.)


Taxes and other revenues:
33.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-1.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66


Public debt:
32.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112
32.4% of GDP (2012 est.)


Fiscal year:
1 July - 30 June


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
1.8% (2012 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
3% (February 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
4.35% (31 December 2010 est.)
note:this is the Reserve Bank of Australia's 'cash rate target,' or policy rate


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.2% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
6.98% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$526.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$534.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of broad money:
$1.661 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
$1.648 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$2.222 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
$2.255 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA (31 December 2012 est.)


Current account balance:
-$44.9 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 186
-$57.14 billion (2012 est.)


Exports:
$251.7 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22
$257.9 billion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
coal, iron ore, gold, meat, wool, alumina, wheat, machinery and transport equipment


Exports - partners:
China 29.5%, Japan 19.3%, South Korea 8%, India 4.9% (2012)


Imports:
$245.8 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21
$263 billion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
machinery and transport equipment, computers and office machines, telecommunication equipment and parts; crude oil and petroleum products


Imports - partners:
China 18.4%, US 11.7%, Japan 7.9%, Singapore 6%, Germany 4.6%, Thailand 4.2%, South Korea 4.1% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$48.8 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40
$49.15 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Debt - external:
$1.506 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$1.497 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$661.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$610.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$440.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$426 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar -
1.031 (2013 est.)
0.9658 (2012 est.)
1.0902 (2010)
1.2822 (2009)
1.2059 (2008)


Energy


Electricity - production:
225.5 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


Electricity - consumption:
213.5 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17


Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99


Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
59.13 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
78.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
13.6% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
5.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46


Crude oil - production:
519,100 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 32


Crude oil - exports:
314,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25


Crude oil - imports:
475,900 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
1.433 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39


Refined petroleum products - production:
675,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.023 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


Refined petroleum products - exports:
70,810 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53


Refined petroleum products - imports:
304,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21


Natural gas - production:
48.24 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


Natural gas - consumption:
33.39 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27


Natural gas - exports:
30.27 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15


Natural gas - imports:
10.92 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27


Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.219 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
392.3 million Mt (2011 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
10.47 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 20


Telephones - mobile cellular:
24.4 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 43


Telephone system:
general assessment:excellent domestic and international service
domestic:domestic satellite system; significant use of radiotelephone in areas of low population density; rapid growth of mobile telephones
international:country code - 61; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable with links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; the Southern Cross fiber optic submarine cable provides links to New Zealand and the United States; satellite earth stations - 10 Intelsat (4 Indian Ocean and 6 Pacific Ocean), 2 Inmarsat, 2 Globalstar, 5 other) (2007)



    Broadcast media:
the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) runs multiple national and local radio networks and TV stations, as well as Australia Network, a TV service that broadcasts throughout the Asia-Pacific region and is the main public broadcaster; Special Broadcasting Service (SBS), a second large public broadcaster, operates radio and TV networks broadcasting in multiple languages; several large national commercial TV networks, a large number of local commercial TV stations, and hundreds of commercial radio stations are accessible; cable and satellite systems are available (2008)


Internet country code:
.au


Internet hosts:
17.081 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 8


Internet users:
15.81 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 25



Transportation


Airports
480 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 16


Airports - with paved runways
total:349
over 3,047 m:11
2,438 to 3,047 m:14
1,524 to 2,437 m:155
914 to 1,523 m:155
under 914 m:14 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:131
1,524 to 2,437 m:16
914 to 1,523 m:101
under 914 m:
14 (2013)


Heliports
1 (2013)


Pipelines
condensate/gas 637 km; gas 30,054 km; liquid petroleum gas 240 km; oil 3,609 km; oil/gas/water 110 km; refined products 72 km (2013)


Railways
total:38,445 kmcountry comparison to the world: 7
broad gauge:3,355 km 1.600-m gauge
standard gauge:21,674 km 1.435-m gauge (650 km electrified)
narrow gauge:9,539 km 1.067-m gauge (2,067 km electrified); 3,877 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)


    Roadways
total:823,217 kmcountry comparison to the world: 9
paved:356,343 km
unpaved:466,874 km (2011)


Waterways
2,000 km (mainly used for recreation on Murray and Murray-Darling river systems) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 43


Merchant marine
total:41country comparison to the world: 75
by type:bulk carrier 8, cargo 7, liquefied gas 4, passenger 6, passenger/cargo 6, petroleum tanker 5, roll on/roll off 5
foreign-owned:17 (Canada 5, Germany 2, Singapore 2, South Africa 1, UK 5, US 2)
registered in other countries:25 (Bahamas 1, Dominica 1, Fiji 2, Liberia 1, Netherlands 1, Panama 4, Singapore 12, Tonga 1, UK 1, US 1) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Brisbane, Cairns, Darwin, Fremantle, Geelong, Gladstone, Hobart, Melbourne, Newcastle, Port Adelaide, Port Kembla, Sydney
dry bulk cargo port(s):Dampier (iron ore), Dalrymple Bay (coal), Hay Point (coal), Port Hedland (iron ore), Port Walcott (iron ore)
container port(s) (TEUs):Brisbane (1,004,983), Melbourne (2,467,967), Sydney (2,028,074)(2011)
LNG terminal(s) (export):Darwin, Karratha


Military


Military branches
Australian Defense Force (ADF): Australian Army; Royal Australian Navy (includes Naval Aviation Force); Royal Australian Air Force; Joint Operations Command (JOC) (2013)


Military service age and obligation
17 years of age for voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; women allowed to serve in most combat roles, except the Army special forces (2013)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:5,316,464
females age 16-49:5,116,722 (2010 est.)


Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:4,411,958
females age 16-49:4,239,985 (2010 est.)


    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:143,565
female:135,800 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
1.71% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 51
1.84% of GDP (2011)
1.71% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
In 2007, Australia and Timor-Leste agreed to a 50-year development zone and revenue sharing arrangement and deferred a maritime boundary; Australia asserts land and maritime claims to Antarctica; Australia's 2004 submission to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) extends its continental margins over 3.37 million square kilometers, expanding its seabed roughly 30 percent beyond its claimed exclusive economic zone; all borders between Indonesia and Australia have been agreed upon bilaterally, but a 1997 treaty that would settle the last of their maritime and Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundary has yet to be ratified by Indonesia's legislature; Indonesian groups challenge Australia's claim to Ashmore Reef; Australia closed parts of the Ashmore and Cartier reserve to Indonesian traditional fishing


    Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):8,368 (Afghanistan) (2013)


Illicit drugs
Tasmania is one of the world's major suppliers of licit opiate products; government maintains strict controls over areas of opium poppy cultivation and output of poppy straw concentrate; major consumer of cocaine and amphetamines

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in Australia 2017


           
 

 
Australia

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
15
80.26
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
7
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
63
 
  DTF
96.47
 
  DTF
58.33
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
3.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
5.8
 
  Time - Men (number)
2.5
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Cost - Men (days)
0.7
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
8.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
3.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
2.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
2.5
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
8.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
0.7
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
5.7
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
0.0
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
5.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
4.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
2
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
8.0
 
  DTF
86.56
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
10.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
25
 
  Time (days)
112.0
 
  DTF
85.60
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
0.5
 
  Payments (number per year)
11.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
14.0
 
  Time (hours per year)
105.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
2.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
47.6
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
26.0
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
21.1
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
0.5
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
95.4
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
4.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
91
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
41
 
  DTF
70.65
 
  DTF
82.31
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
36
 
  Procedures (number)
5.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
749
 
  Time (days)
75.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
7
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
12.6
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
264
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
7.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
39
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
2.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
525
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
4
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
1.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
100
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
3
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
1.0
 
  DTF
79.72
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
19.3
 
  Time (days)
395.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
21.8
 
  Registering Property (rank)
45
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
15.5
 
  DTF
74.22
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
5.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
21
 
  Time (days)
4.5
 
  DTF
78.73
 
  Cost (% of property value)
5.2
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
82.4
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
20.0
 
  Time (years)
1.0
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
7.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
8.0
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
3.5
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
1
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
4.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
11.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
5.5
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
2.5
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
0.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
5.0
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
0.5
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
5
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
3.0
 
  DTF
90.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
11.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
7.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
0.0
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
100.0
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



Information provided by The World Bank Group

 

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