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Myanmar Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Bangladesh and Thailand


Geographic coordinates:
22 00 N, 98 00 E


Map references:
Southeast Asia


Area:
total:676,578 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 40
land:653,508 sq km
water:23,070 sq km


Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Texas


Land boundaries:
total:6,522 km
border countries:Bangladesh 271 km, China 2,129 km, India 1,468 km, Laos 238 km, Thailand 2,416 km


Coastline:
1,930 km


Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


Climate:
tropical monsoon; cloudy, rainy, hot, humid summers (southwest monsoon, June to September); less cloudy, scant rainfall, mild temperatures, lower humidity during winter (northeast monsoon, December to April)


    Terrain:
central lowlands ringed by steep, rugged highlands


Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Andaman Sea / Bay of Bengal 0 m
highest point:Gamlang Razi 5,870 m


Natural resources:
petroleum, timber, tin, antimony, zinc, copper, tungsten, lead, coal, marble, limestone, precious stones, natural gas, hydropower


Land use:
arable land:15.94%
permanent crops:2.16%
other:81.89% (2011)


Irrigated land:
21,100 sq km (2004)


Total renewable water resources:
1,168 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
1,168 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
destructive earthquakes and cyclones; flooding and landslides common during rainy season (June to September); periodic droughts


Environment - current issues:
deforestation; industrial pollution of air, soil, and water; inadequate sanitation and water treatment contribute to disease


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements


Geography - note:
strategic location near major Indian Ocean shipping lanes



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Burmese (singular and plural)
adjective:Burmese


Ethnic groups:
Burman 68%, Shan 9%, Karen 7%, Rakhine 4%, Chinese 3%, Indian 2%, Mon 2%, other 5%


Languages:
Burmese (official)


Religions:
Buddhist 89%, Christian 4% (Baptist 3%, Roman Catholic 1%), Muslim 4%, Animist 1%, other 2%


Population:
55,746,253country comparison to the world: 25
note:estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)



Age structure:
0-14 years:26.4% (male 7,498,179/female 7,209,588)
15-24 years:18.3% (male 5,163,399/female 5,037,117)
25-54 years:43.1% (male 11,930,777/female 12,073,741)
55-64 years:7% (male 1,836,463/female 2,059,482)
65 years and over:5.3% (male 1,277,919/female 1,659,588) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:42.5 %
youth dependency ratio:35 %
elderly dependency ratio:7.6 %
potential support ratio:13.2 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:27.9 years
male:27.3 years
female:28.5 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
1.03% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 116


Birth rate:
18.65 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 97


Death rate:
8.01 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 99


Net migration rate:
-0.3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 124


Urbanization:
urban population:32.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:2.49% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
RANGOON (capital) 4.457 million; Mandalay 1.063 million; Nay Pyi Taw 1.06 million (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years:0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.77 male(s)/female
total population:0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


    Mother's mean age at first birth:
22.8 (2007 est.)


Maternal mortality rate:
200 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:44.91 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 47
male:51.35 deaths/1,000 live births
female:38.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


Life expectancy at birth:
total population:65.94 yearscountry comparison to the world: 170
male:63.57 years
female:68.46 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
2.18 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 103


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
46% (2009/10)


Health expenditures:
2% of GDP (2011)


Physicians density:
0.5 physicians/1,000 population (2010)


Hospital bed density:
0.6 beds/1,000 population (2006)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 94.8% of population
rural: 81.1% of population
total: 85.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 5.2% of population
rural: 18.9% of population
total: 14.3% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 84.3% of population
rural: 73.9% of population
total: 77.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 15.7% of population
rural: 26.1% of population
total: 22.6% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 61


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
195,700 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 31


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
11,600 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 26


Major infectious diseases:


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
4% (2008)country comparison to the world: 172


Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
22.6% (2010)country comparison to the world: 27


Education expenditures:
0.8% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 172

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:92.7%
male:95.1%
female:90.4% (2011 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:9 years (2007)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: Union of Burma
conventional short form:Burma
local long form:Pyidaungzu Thammada Myanma Naingngandaw (translated as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar)
local short form:Myanma Naingngandaw
former:Socialist Republic of the Union of Burma, Union of Myanmar
note:since 1989 the military authorities in Burma and the current parliamentary government have promoted the name Myanmar as a conventional name for their state; the US Government has not adopted the name


Government type:
parliamentary government took power in March 2011


Capital:
name:Rangoon (Yangon); note - Nay Pyi Taw is the administrative capital
geographic coordinates:16 48 N, 96 09 E
time difference:UTC+6.5 (11.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)


Administrative divisions:
7 regions (taing-myar, singular - taing) and 7 states (pyi ne-myar, singular - pyi ne)


Independence:
4 January 1948 (from the UK)


National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 January (1948); Union Day, 12 February (1947)


Constitution:
previous 1947, 1974 (suspended until 2008); latest approved by referendum 29 May 2008; reformed 2011 (2011)


Legal system:
mixed legal system of English common law (as introduced in codifications designed for colonial India) and customary law


International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal


Executive branch:
chief of state:President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011); Vice President SAI MAUK KHAM (since 3 February 2011); Vice President NYAN TUN (since 15 August 2012)
head of government:President THEIN SEIN (since 4 February 2011)
cabinet:cabinet is appointed by the president and confirmed by the parliament
elections:THEIN SEIN elected president by the parliament from among three vice presidents; the upper house, the lower house, and military members of the parliament each nominate one vice president (president serves a five-year term)


Legislative branch:
bicameral, consists of the House of Nationalities [Amyotha Hluttaw] (224 seats, 168 directly elected and 56 appointed by the military; members serve five-year terms) and the House of Representatives [Pythu Hluttaw] (440 seats, 330 directly elected and 110 appointed by the military; members serve five-year terms)
elections:last held on 7 November 2010 (next to be held in December 2015)
election results:House of Nationalities - percent of vote by party - USDP 74.8%, other (NUP, SNDP, RNDP, NDF, AMRDP) 25.2%; seats by party - USDP 129, other 39; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - USDP 79.6%, other (NUP, SNDP, RNDP, NDF, AMRDP) 20.4%; seats by party - USDP 259, other 71


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court of the Union (consists of the chief justice and 7-11 judges)
judge selection and term of office:chief justice and judges nominated by the president, with approval of the Pythu Hlattaw, and appointed by the president; judges normally serve until mandatory retirement at age 70
subordinate courts:High Courts of the Region; High Courts of the State; Court of the Self-Administered Division; Court of the Self-Administered Zone; district and township courts; special courts (for juvenile, municipal, and traffic offenses); courts martial


    Political parties and leaders:
All Mon Region Democracy Party or AMRDP [NAING NGWE THEIN]
National Democratic Force or NDF [KHIN MAUNG SWE, Dr.THAN NYEIN]
National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SAN SUU KYI]
National Unity Party or NUP [TUN YE]
Rakhine Nationalities Development Party or RNDP [Dr. AYE MG]
Shan Nationalities Democratic Party or SNDP [SAI AIKE PAUNG]
Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]
Union Solidarity and Development Party or USDP [SHWE MANN, HTAY OO]
numerous smaller parties


Political pressure groups and leaders:
All Mon Region Democracy Party or AMRDP [NAING NGWE THEIN]
National Democratic Force or NDF [KHIN MAUNG SWE, Dr.THAN NYEIN]
National League for Democracy or NLD [AUNG SAN SUU KYI]
National Unity Party or NUP [TUN YE]
Rakhine Nationalities Development Party or RNDP [Dr. AYE MG]
Shan Nationalities Democratic Party or SNDP [SAI AIKE PAUNG]
Shan Nationalities League for Democracy or SNLD [HKUN HTUN OO]
Union Solidarity and Development Party or USDP [SHWE MANN, HTAY OO]
numerous smaller parties



International organization participation:
ADB, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), NAM, OPCW (signatory), SAARC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador KYAW MYO HTUT (since 3 December 2013)
chancery:2300 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 332-3344
FAX:[1] (202) 332-4351
consulate(s) general:none; Burma has a Mission to the UN in New York


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Derek J. MITCHELL (since 11 July 2012)
embassy:110 University Avenue, Kamayut Township, Rangoon
mailing address:Box B, APO AP 96546
telephone:[95] (1) 536-509, 535-756, 538-038
FAX:[95] (1) 511-069


Flag description:
design consists of three equal horizontal stripes of yellow (top), green, and red; centered on the green band is a large white five-pointed star that partially overlaps onto the adjacent colored stripes; the design revives the triband colors used by Burma from 1943-45, during the Japanese occupation


National symbol(s):
chinthe (mythical lion)


National anthem:
name:'Kaba Ma Kyei' (Till the End of the World, Myanmar)

lyrics/music:SAYA TIN
note:adopted 1948; Burma is among a handful of non-European nations that have anthems rooted in indigenous traditions; the beginning portion of the anthem is a traditional Burmese anthem before transitioning into a Western-style orchestrated work


Economy


Economy - overview:
Since the transition to a civilian government in 2011, Burma has begun an economic overhaul aimed at attracting foreign investment and reintegrating into the global economy. Economic reforms have included establishing a managed float of the Burmese kyat in 2012, granting the Central Bank operational independence in July 2013, and enacting a new Anti-corruption Law in September 2013. The government’s commitment to reform, and the subsequent easing of most Western sanctions, has begun to pay dividends. The economy accelerated in 2012 and 2013. And Burma’s abundant natural resources, young labor force, and proximity to Asia’s dynamic economies have attracted foreign investment in the energy sector, garment industry, information technology, and food and beverages. Foreign direct investment grew from US$1.9 billion in FY 2011 to US$2.7 billion in FY 2012. Despite these improvements, living standards have not improved for the majority of the people residing in rural areas. Burma remains one of the poorest countries in Asia - more than one-fourth of the country’s 60 million people live in poverty. The previous government’s isolationist policies and economic mismanagement have left Burma with poor infrastructure, endemic corruption, underdeveloped human resources, and inadequate access to capital, which will require a major commitment to reverse. The Burmese government has been slow to address impediments to economic development such as an opaque revenue collection system and antiquated banking system. Key benchmarks of sustained economic progress would include modernizing and opening the financial sector, increasing budget allocations for social services, and accelerating agricultural and land reforms.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$111.1 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
$104 billion (2012 est.)
$97.81 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$59.43 billion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
6.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
6.4% (2012 est.)
5.9% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$1,700 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 201
$1,600 (2012 est.)
$1,600 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
11.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 128
12.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
13.7% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:80.6%
government consumption:3.8%
investment in fixed capital:17.5%
investment in inventories:0.3%
exports of goods and services:20.1%
imports of goods and services:-22.3%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:38%
industry:20.3%
services:41.7% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
rice, pulses, beans, sesame, groundnuts, sugarcane; fish and fish products; hardwood


Industries:
agricultural processing; wood and wood products; copper, tin, tungsten, iron; cement, construction materials; pharmaceuticals; fertilizer; oil and natural gas; garments, jade, gems


Industrial production growth rate:
11.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9

Labor force:
34.31 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:70%
industry:7%
services:23% (2001)


Unemployment rate:
5.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
5.4% (2012 est.)


    Population below poverty line:
32.7% (2007 est.)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:2.8%
highest 10%:32.4% (1998)


Budget:
revenues:$2.413 billion
expenditures:$4.443 billion (2013 est.)


Taxes and other revenues:
4.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-3.4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 135


Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
5.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 165
1.5% (2012 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
9.95% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
12% (31 December 2009 est.)


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
13% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
13% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$12.23 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72
$11.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$14.43 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87
$13.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA


Current account balance:
-$2.596 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
-$1.791 billion (2012 est.)


Exports:
$9.043 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
$7.82 billion (2012 est.)
note:official export figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of timber, gems, narcotics, rice, and other products smuggled to Thailand, China, and Bangladesh


Exports - commodities:
natural gas, wood products, pulses, beans, fish, rice, clothing, jade and gems


Exports - partners:
Thailand 40.7%, India 14.8%, China 14.3%, Japan 7.4% (2012)


Imports:
$10.11 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101
$7.998 billion (2012 est.)
note:import figures are grossly underestimated due to the value of consumer goods, diesel fuel, and other products smuggled in from Thailand, China, Malaysia, and India


Imports - commodities:
fabric, petroleum products, fertilizer, plastics, machinery, transport equipment; cement, construction materials, crude oil; food products, edible oil


Imports - partners:
China 36.9%, Thailand 20.2%, Singapore 8.7%, South Korea 8.7%, Japan 8.2%, Malaysia 4.6% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$8.278 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
$6.977 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Debt - external:
$5.379 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
$5.591 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
kyats (MMK) per US dollar -
947.9 (2013 est.)
853.48 (2012 est.)
5.58 (2010 est.)
1,055 (2009)
1,205 (2008)


Energy


Electricity - production:
7.346 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104


Electricity - consumption:
6.093 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107


Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108


Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
1.713 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
53.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
46.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158


Crude oil - production:
20,830 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77


Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87


Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
50 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78


Refined petroleum products - production:
18,920 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
40,620 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106


Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155


Refined petroleum products - imports:
4,855 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152


Natural gas - production:
11.91 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39


Natural gas - consumption:
3.24 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70


Natural gas - exports:
8.57 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30


Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163


Natural gas - proved reserves:
283.2 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
13.67 million Mt (2011 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
556,000 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 95


Telephones - mobile cellular:
5.44 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 106


Telephone system:
general assessment:meets minimum requirements for local and intercity service for business and government
domestic:system barely capable of providing basic service; mobile-cellular phone system is grossly underdeveloped
international:country code - 95; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 optical telecommunications submarine cable that provides links to Asia, the Middle East, and Europe; satellite earth stations - 2, Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and ShinSat (2011)



    Broadcast media:
government controls all domestic broadcast media; 2 state-controlled TV stations with 1 of the stations controlled by the armed forces; 2 pay-TV stations are joint state-private ventures; access to satellite TV is limited; 1 state-controlled domestic radio station and 9 FM stations that are joint state-private ventures; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in parts of Burma; the Voice of America (VOA), Radio Free Asia (RFA), BBC Burmese service, the Democratic Voice of Burma (DVB), and Radio Australia use shortwave to broadcast in Burma; VOA, RFA, and DVB produce daily TV news programs that are transmitted by satellite to audiences in Burma


Internet country code:
.mm


Internet hosts:
1,055 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 172


Internet users:
110,000 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 158



Transportation


Airports
64 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 77


Airports - with paved runways
total:36
over 3,047 m:12
2,438 to 3,047 m:11
1,524 to 2,437 m:12
under 914 m:1 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:28
over 3,047 m:1
1,524 to 2,437 m:4
914 to 1,523 m:10
under 914 m:
13 (2013)


Heliports
11 (2013)


Pipelines
gas 3,739 km; oil 551 km (2013)


Railways
total:5,031 kmcountry comparison to the world: 36
narrow gauge:5,031 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)


    Roadways
total:34,377 km (includes 358 km of expressways) (2010)country comparison to the world: 93

Waterways
12,800 km (2011)
country comparison to the world: 10


Merchant marine
total:29country comparison to the world: 86
by type:cargo 22, passenger 2, passenger/cargo 3, specialized tanker 1, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned:2 (Germany 1, Japan 1)
registered in other countries:3 (Panama 3) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Moulmein, Sittwe
river port(s):Rangoon (Rangoon River)


Military


Military branches
Myanmar Armed Forces (Tatmadaw): Army (Tatmadaw Kyi), Navy (Tatmadaw Yay), Air Force (Tatmadaw Lay) (2013)


Military service age and obligation
18-35 years of age (men) and 18-27 years of age (women) for voluntary military service; no conscription (a 2010 law reintroducing conscription has not yet entered into force); service obligation 2 years; male (ages 18-45) and female (ages 18-35) professionals (including doctors, engineers, mechanics) serve up to 3 years; service terms may be stretched to 5 years in an officially declared emergency; Burma signed the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on 15 August 1991; on 27 June 2012, the regime signed a Joint Action Plan on prevention of child recruitment; in February 2013, the military formed a new task force to address forced child conscription, which reportedly continues (2013)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:14,747,845
females age 16-49:14,710,871 (2010 est.)


    Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:10,451,515
females age 16-49:11,181,537 (2010 est.)


Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:522,478
female:506,388 (2010 est.)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin in neighboring countries; the Naf River on the border with Bangladesh serves as a smuggling and illegal transit route; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border with Bangladesh in 2010; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; fencing along the India-Burma international border at Manipur's Moreh town is in progress to check illegal drug trafficking and movement of militants; over 90,000 mostly Karen refugees and asylum seekers fleeing civil strife, political upheaval, and economic stagnation in Burma were living in remote camps in Thailand near the border as of year-end 2013


    Refugees and internally displaced persons
IDPs:640,900 (government offensives against armed ethnic minority groups near its borders with China and Thailand) (2013)
stateless persons:808,075 (2014); note - Burma's main group of stateless people is the Rohingya, Muslims living in northern Rakhine State; the Burmese Government does not recognize the Rohingya as a 'national race' and stripped them of their citizenship under the 1982 Citizenship law, categorizing them as 'non-national' or 'foreign residents'; native-born but non-indigenous people, such as Indians, and children born in Thailand to Burmese parents are also stateless; the Burmese Government does not grant citizenship to children born outside of the country to Burmese parents who left the country illegally or fled persecution



Trafficking in persons



Illicit drugs
world's third largest producer of illicit opium with an estimated production in 2012 of 690 metric tons, an increase of 13% over 2011, and poppy cultivation in 2012 totaled 51,000 hectares, a 17% increase over 2011; production in the United Wa State Army's areas of greatest control remains low; Shan state is the source of 94.5% of Burma's poppy cultivation; lack of government will to take on major narcotrafficking groups and lack of serious commitment against money laundering continues to hinder the overall antidrug effort; major source of methamphetamine and heroin for regional consumption (2013)

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in Myanmar 2017


           
 

 
Myanmar

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
170
44.56
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
146
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
179
 
  DTF
77.10
 
  DTF
28.33
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
11.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
2.8
 
  Time - Men (number)
13.0
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
2.0
 
  Cost - Men (days)
40.4
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
3.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
11.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
0.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
13.0
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
3.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
40.4
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
3.7
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
0.0
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
5.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
3.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
66
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
3.0
 
  DTF
72.23
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
14.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
119
 
  Time (days)
95.0
 
  DTF
64.05
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
3.0
 
  Payments (number per year)
31.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
9.0
 
  Time (hours per year)
282.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
31.3
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
26.2
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
0.3
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
5.9
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
0.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
46.1
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
2.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
159
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
149
 
  DTF
47.40
 
  DTF
52.17
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
144
 
  Procedures (number)
6.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
432
 
  Time (days)
77.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
144
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
1270.1
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
140
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
0.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
232
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
0.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
457
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
0.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
48
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
0.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
210
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
0.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
0.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
188
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
0.0
 
  DTF
24.53
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
9.8
 
  Time (days)
1160.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
51.5
 
  Registering Property (rank)
143
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
3.0
 
  DTF
49.37
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
6.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
164
 
  Time (days)
85.0
 
  DTF
20.39
 
  Cost (% of property value)
5.1
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
14.7
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
4.0
 
  Time (years)
5.0
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
0.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
18.0
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
2.0
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
0
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
0.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
4.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
2.0
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
0.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
2.0
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
0.0
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
175
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
0.0
 
  DTF
10.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
2.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
0.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
0.0
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
0.0
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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