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Belarus Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Eastern Europe, east of Poland


Geographic coordinates:
53 00 N, 28 00 E


Map references:
Europe


Area:
total:207,600 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 86
land:202,900 sq km
water:4,700 sq km


Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Kansas


Land boundaries:
total:3,599 km
border countries:Latvia 161 km, Lithuania 640 km, Poland 375 km, Russia 1,312 km, Ukraine 1,111 km


Coastline:
0 km (landlocked)


Maritime claims:
lowest point:Nyoman River 90 m
highest point:Dzyarzhynskaya Hara 346 m


Natural resources:
timber, peat deposits, small quantities of oil and natural gas, granite, dolomitic limestone, marl, chalk, sand, gravel, clay


    Land use:
arable land:26.63%
permanent crops:0.59%
other:72.78% (2011)


Irrigated land:
1,150 sq km (2003)


Total renewable water resources:
58 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
58 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
NA


Environment - current issues:
soil pollution from pesticide use; southern part of the country contaminated with fallout from 1986 nuclear reactor accident at Chornobyl' in northern Ukraine


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements


Geography - note:
landlocked; glacial scouring accounts for the flatness of Belarusian terrain and for its 11,000 lakes



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Belarusian(s)
adjective:Belarusian


Ethnic groups:
Belarusian 83.7%, Russian 8.3%, Polish 3.1%, Ukrainian 1.7%, other 2.4%, unspecified 0.9% (2009 est.)


Languages:
Belarusian (official) 23.4%, Russian (official) 70.2%, other 3.1% (includes small Polish- and Ukrainian-speaking minorities), unspecified 3.3% (2009 est.)


Religions:
Eastern Orthodox 80%, other (including Roman Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 20% (1997 est.)


Population:
9,608,058 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 93


Age structure:
0-14 years:15.4% (male 759,285/female 717,118)
15-24 years:11.7% (male 575,907/female 544,170)
25-54 years:45.5% (male 2,141,419/female 2,227,433)
55-64 years:13.3% (male 562,639/female 716,216)
65 years and over:14.2% (male 430,225/female 933,646) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:41.5 %
youth dependency ratio:22 %
elderly dependency ratio:19.6 %
potential support ratio:5.1 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:39.4 years
male:36.3 years
female:42.4 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
-0.19% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 213


Birth rate:
10.86 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 179


Death rate:
13.51 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 16


Net migration rate:
0.78 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 65


Urbanization:
urban population:75% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:0.21% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
MINSK (capital) 1.861 million (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years:0.96 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.46 male(s)/female
total population:0.87 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
25.1 (2011 est.)


Maternal mortality rate:
4 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:3.64 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 206
male:4.07 deaths/1,000 live births
female:3.19 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:72.15 yearscountry comparison to the world: 138
male:66.53 years
female:78.1 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
1.47 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 195


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
72.6% (2005)


Health expenditures:
5.3% of GDP (2011)


Physicians density:
3.76 physicians/1,000 population (2011)


Hospital bed density:
11.1 beds/1,000 population (2011)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0.4% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 94% of population
rural: 95.3% of population
total: 94.3% of population
unimproved:
urban: 6% of population
rural: 4.7% of population
total: 5.7% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 76


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
23,200 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 78


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,200 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 69


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
24.3% (2008)country comparison to the world: 65


Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
1.3% (2005)country comparison to the world: 130


Education expenditures:
5.1% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 71

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:99.6%
male:99.8%
female:99.5% (2009 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:16 years
male:15 years
female:16 years (2012)


Child labor - children ages 5-14:



Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:12.6%country comparison to the world: 96
male:12.4%
female:12.6% (2009)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Belarus
conventional short form:Belarus
local long form:Respublika Byelarus'/Respublika Belarus'
local short form:Byelarus'/Belarus'
former:Belorussian (Byelorussian) Soviet Socialist Republic


Government type:
republic in name, although in fact a dictatorship


Capital:
name:Minsk
geographic coordinates:53 54 N, 27 34 E
time difference:UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)


Administrative divisions:
6 provinces (voblastsi, singular - voblasts') and 1 municipality* (horad); Brest, Homyel' (Gomel), Horad Minsk* (Minsk City), Hrodna (Grodno), Mahilyow (Mogilev), Minsk, Vitsyebsk (Vitebsk)


Independence:
25 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)


National holiday:
Independence Day, 3 July (1944); note - 3 July 1944 was the date Minsk was liberated from German troops, 25 August 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union


Constitution:
several previous; latest drafted between late 1991 and early 1994, signed 15 March 1994; amended 1996, 2004 (2013)


Legal system:
civil law system; note - nearly all major codes (civil, civil procedure, criminal, criminal procedure, family and labor) have been revised and came into force in 1999 or 2000


International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal


Executive branch:
chief of state:president Aleksandr LUKASHENKO (since 20 July 1994); note - the US does not recognize the results of the 19 December 2010 elections under which the Central Election Commission of Belarus declared LUKASHENKO president
head of government:prime minister Mikhail MYASNIKOVICH (since 28 December 2010); first deputy prime minister Vladimir SEMASHKO (since December 2003)
cabinet:Council of Ministers
elections:president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; first election took place on 23 June and 10 July 1994; according to the 1994 constitution, the next election should have been held in 1999, however, Aleksandr LUKASHENKO extended his term to 2001 via a November 1996 referendum; subsequent election held on 9 September 2001; an October 2004 referendum ended presidential term limits and allowed the president to run in a third (19 March 2006) and fourth election (19 December 2010); prime minister and deputy prime ministers appointed by the president
election results:Aleksandr LUKASHENKO reelected president; percent of vote - Aleksandr LUKASHENKO 79.7%, Andrey SANNIKOV 2.6%, other candidates 17.7%; note - election marred by electoral fraud


Legislative branch:
bicameral national assembly or natsionalnoye sobraniye consists of the Council of the Republic or Sovet Respubliki (64 seats; 56 members elected by regional and Minsk city councils and 8 members appointed by the president, to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Representatives or Palata Predstaviteley (110 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - the US does not recognize the legitimacy of the national assembly
elections:Palata Predstaviteley - last held on 23 September 2012 (next to be held September 2016); OSCE observers determined that the election was neither free nor impartial and that vote counting was problematic in a number of polling stations; pro-LUKASHENKO candidates won every seat with no opposition representation in the chamber; international observers determined that the previous election, on 28 September 2008, despite minor improvements also fell short of democratic standards, with pro-LUKASHENKO candidates winning every seat
election results:Sovet Respubliki - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Palata Predstaviteley - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - KPB 3, AP 1, Republican Party of Labor and Justice 1, no affiliation 105


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairman, and NA judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 12 judges including a chairman and deputy chairman)
judge selection and term of office:Supreme Court judges appointed by the president with the consent of the Council of the Republic; judges initially appointed for 5 years and evaluated for life appointment; Constitutional Court judges - 6 appointed by the president and 6 elected by the Chamber of Representatives; term of judges is 11 years with an age limit of 70
subordinate courts:regional, district, city, town, and military courts


    Political parties and leaders:
Assembly of Pro-Democratic NGOs [Sergey MATSKEVICH] (unregistered)
Belarusian Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]
Belarusian Association of Journalists [Zhana LITVINA]
Belarusian Helsinki Committee [Aleh HULAK]
Belarusian Independence Bloc (unregistered) and For Freedom movement [Aleksandr MILINKEVICH]
Belarusian Organization of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]
BPF-Youth [Andrus KRECHKA] (unregistered)
Charter 97 [Andrey SANNIKOV] (unregistered)
Perspektiva small business association [Anatol SHUMCHENKO]
Nasha Vyasna ('Our Spring') human rights center [Ales BYALYATSKI] (unregistered)
'Tell the Truth' Movement [Vladimir NEKLYAYEV] (unregistered)
Women's Independent Democratic Movement [Ludmila PETINA]
Young Belarus (Malady Belarus) [Zmitser KASPYAROVICH] (unregistered)
Youth Front (Malady Front) [Zmitser DASHKEVICH] (unregistered)


International organization participation:
BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CEI, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, NSG, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SCO (dialogue member), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer), ZC


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Oleg KRAVCHENKO
chancery:1619 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:[1] (202) 986-1604
FAX:[1] (202) 986-1805
consulate(s) general:New York


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Ethan GOLDRICH (since July 2012)
embassy:46 Starovilenskaya Street, Minsk 220002
mailing address:PSC 78, Box B Minsk, APO 09723
telephone:[375] (17) 210-12-83
FAX:[375] (17) 234-7853


Flag description:
red horizontal band (top) and green horizontal band one-half the width of the red band; a white vertical stripe on the hoist side bears Belarusian national ornamentation in red; the red band color recalls past struggles from oppression, the green band represents hope and the many forests of the country


National symbol(s):
mounted knight known as Pahonia (the Chaser)


National anthem:
name:'My, Bielarusy' (We Belarusians)

lyrics/music:Mikhas KLIMKOVICH and Uladzimir KARYZNA/Nester SAKALOUSKI
note:music adopted 1955, lyrics adopted 2002; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Belarus kept the music of its Soviet-era anthem but adopted new lyrics; also known as 'Dziarzauny himn Respubliki Bielarus' (State Anthem of the Republic of Belarus)


Economy


Economy - overview:
As part of the former Soviet Union, Belarus had a relatively well-developed industrial base; it retained this industrial base - which is now outdated, energy inefficient, and dependent on subsidized Russian energy and preferential access to Russian markets - following the breakup of the USSR. The country also has a broad agricultural base which is inefficient and dependent on government subsidies. After an initial burst of capitalist reform from 1991-94, including privatization of state enterprises, creation of institutions of private property, and development of entrepreneurship, Belarus' economic development greatly slowed. About 80% of all industry remains in state hands, and foreign investment has been hindered by a climate hostile to business. A few banks, which had been privatized after independence, were renationalized. State banks account for 75% of the banking sector. Economic output, which had declined for several years following the collapse of the Soviet Union, revived in the mid-2000s thanks to the boom in oil prices. Belarus has only small reserves of crude oil, though it imports most of its crude oil and natural gas from Russia at prices substantially below the world market. Belarus exported refined oil products at market prices produced from Russian crude oil purchased at a steep discount. In late 2006, Russia began a process of rolling back its subsidies on oil and gas to Belarus. Tensions over Russian energy reached a peak in 2010, when Russia stopped the export of all subsidized oil to Belarus save for domestic needs. In December 2010, Russia and Belarus reached a deal to restart the export of discounted oil to Belarus. Little new foreign investment has occurred in recent years. In 2011, a financial crisis began, triggered by government directed salary hikes unsupported by commensurate productivity increases. The crisis was compounded by an increased cost in Russian energy inputs and an overvalued Belarusian ruble, and eventually led to a near three-fold devaluation of the Belarusian ruble in 2011. In November 2011, Belarus agreed to sell to Russia its remaining shares in Beltransgaz, the Belarusian natural gas pipeline operator, in exchange for reduced prices for Russian natural gas. Receiving more than half of a $3 billion loan from the Russian-dominated Eurasian Economic Community (EurAsEC) Bail-out Fund, a $1 billion loan from the Russian state-owned bank Sberbank, and the $2.5 billion sale of Beltranzgas to Russian state-owned Gazprom helped stabilize the situation in 2012; nevertheless, the Belarusian currency lost more than 60% of its value, as the rate of inflation reached new highs in 2011 and 2012, before calming in 2013. As of January 2014, the final tranche of the EurAsEC loan has been delayed, but in December 2013 Russia announced a new loan for Belarus of up to $2 billion for 2014. Notwithstanding foreign assistance, the Belarusian economy continues to struggle under the weight of high external debt servicing payments, a growing trade deficit, stagnant economic growth, and low foreign reserves.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$150.4 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
$147.3 billion (2012 est.)
$145 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$69.24 billion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
2.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139
1.5% (2012 est.)
5.5% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$16,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
$15,700 (2012 est.)
$15,400 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
24.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49
31.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
29.2% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:46.3%
government consumption:15.3%
investment in fixed capital:30%
investment in inventories:0.7%
exports of goods and services:80.2%
imports of goods and services:-72.5%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:9.2%
industry:46.2%
services:44.7% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
grain, potatoes, vegetables, sugar beets, flax; beef, milk


Industries:
metal-cutting machine tools, tractors, trucks, earthmovers, motorcycles, televisions, synthetic fibers, fertilizer, textiles, radios, refrigerators


Industrial production growth rate:
1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148

Labor force:
5 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 76


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:9.4%
industry:45.9%
services:44.7% (2005 est.)


    Unemployment rate:
1% (2009 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
1.6% (2005)
note:official registered unemployed; large number of underemployed workers


Population below poverty line:
27.1% (2003 est.)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:3.8%
highest 10%:21.9% (2008)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:
27.2 (2008)
country comparison to the world: 128
21.7 (1998)


Budget:
revenues:$26.68 billion
expenditures:$26.79 billion (2013 est.)


Taxes and other revenues:
38.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-0.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48


Public debt:
31.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
31.5% of GDP (2012 est.)


Fiscal year:
calendar year


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
19% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
59.1% (2012 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
10.5% (31 December 2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
13.5% (31 December 2009 est.)


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
19.49% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
NA% (31 December 2013 est.)
$4.018 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of broad money:
$9.073 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
$7.655 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$22.68 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
$19.82 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$NA


Current account balance:
-$4.245 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 163
-$1.688 billion (2012 est.)


Exports:
$42.06 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
$45.57 billion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals, textiles, foodstuffs


Exports - partners:
Russia 35.4%, Netherlands 16.4%, Ukraine 12.1%, Latvia 7.1% (2012)


Imports:
$45.17 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58
$45.01 billion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
mineral products, machinery and equipment, chemicals, foodstuffs, metals


Imports - partners:
Russia 59.4%, Germany 5.9%, China 5.1%, Ukraine 5% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$4.513 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
$5.809 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Debt - external:
$1.204 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
$1.225 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
Belarusian rubles (BYB/BYR) per US dollar -
8,950.7 (2013 est.)
8,336.9 (2012 est.)
2,978.5 (2010 est.)
2,789.49 (2009)
2,130 (2008)


Energy


Electricity - production:
32.82 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64


Electricity - consumption:
31.74 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61


Electricity - exports:
5.067 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28


Electricity - imports:
7.767 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
8.032 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
99.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.1% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104


Crude oil - production:
32,070 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65


Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89


Crude oil - imports:
294,800 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
198 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60


Refined petroleum products - production:
346,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
188,800 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61


Refined petroleum products - exports:
224,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28


Refined petroleum products - imports:
43,240 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76


Natural gas - production:
220 million cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78


Natural gas - consumption:
21.82 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34


Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69


Natural gas - imports:
21.02 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.832 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
67.16 million Mt (2011 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
4.407 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 37


Telephones - mobile cellular:
10.675 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 75


Telephone system:
general assessment:Belarus lags behind its neighbors in upgrading telecommunications infrastructure; modernization of the network progressing with roughly two-thirds of switching equipment now digital
domestic:state-owned Beltelcom is the sole provider of fixed-line local and long distance service; fixed-line teledensity is improving although rural areas continue to be underserved; multiple GSM mobile-cellular networks are experiencing rapid growth; mobile-cellular teledensity now exceeds 100 telephones per 100 persons
international:country code - 375; Belarus is a member of the Trans-European Line (TEL), Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line, and has access to the Trans-Siberia Line (TSL); 3 fiber-optic segments provide connectivity to Latvia, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine; worldwide service is available to Belarus through this infrastructure; additional analog lines to Russia; Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik earth stations (2008)



    Broadcast media:
4 state-controlled national TV channels; Polish and Russian TV broadcasts are available in some areas; state-run Belarusian Radio operates 3 national networks and an external service; Russian and Polish radio broadcasts are available (2007)


Internet country code:
.by


Internet hosts:
295,217 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 64


Internet users:
2.643 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 69



Transportation


Airports
65 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 75


Airports - with paved runways
total:33
over 3,047 m:1
2,438 to 3,047 m:20
1,524 to 2,437 m:4
914 to 1,523 m:1
under 914 m:7 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:32
over 3,047 m:1
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m:2
under 914 m:
28 (2013)


Heliports
1 (2013)


    Pipelines
gas 5,386 km; oil 1,589 km; refined products 1,730 km (2013)


Railways
total:5,537 kmcountry comparison to the world: 32
broad gauge:5,512 km 1.520-m gauge (874 km electrified)
standard gauge:25 km 1.435-m gauge (2008)


Roadways
total:86,392 kmcountry comparison to the world: 54
paved:74,651 km
unpaved:11,741 km (2010)


Waterways
2,500 km (major rivers are the west-flowing Western Dvina and Neman rivers and the south-flowing Dnepr River and its tributaries, the Berezina, Sozh, and Pripyat rivers) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 36


Ports and terminals
river port(s):Mazyr (Prypyats')


Military


Military branches
Belarus Armed Forces: Land Force, Air and Air Defense Force, Special Operations Force (2013)


Military service age and obligation
18-27 years of age for compulsory military service; conscript service obligation is 12-18 months, depending on academic qualifications; 17 year olds are eligible to become cadets at military higher education institutes, where they are classified as military personnel (2012)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:2,401,785
females age 16-49:2,429,653 (2010 est.)


Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:1,693,626
females age 16-49:2,012,401 (2010 est.)


    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:51,855
female:48,760 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
1.2% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 85
1.27% of GDP (2011)
1.2% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
boundary demarcated with Latvia and Lithuania; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its border with Belarus


Refugees and internally displaced persons
stateless persons:6,969 (2012)


    Trafficking in persons



Illicit drugs
limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for the domestic market; transshipment point for illicit drugs to and via Russia, and to the Baltics and Western Europe; a small and lightly regulated financial center; anti-money-laundering legislation does not meet international standards and was weakened further when know-your-customer requirements were curtailed in 2008; few investigations or prosecutions of money-laundering activities (2008)

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in Belarus 2017


           
 

 
Belarus

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
37
74.13
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
31
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
42
 
  DTF
92.91
 
  DTF
63.33
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
5.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
6.3
 
  Time - Men (number)
5.0
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
5.7
 
  Cost - Men (days)
0.6
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
7.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
5.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
2.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
5.0
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
8.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
0.6
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
7.0
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
0.0
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
6.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
8.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
28
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
7.0
 
  DTF
78.32
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
16.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
99
 
  Time (days)
115.0
 
  DTF
70.40
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
0.7
 
  Payments (number per year)
7.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
13.0
 
  Time (hours per year)
176.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
2.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
54.8
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
12.9
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
39.0
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
1.1
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
50.0
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
4.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
30
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
24
 
  DTF
93.71
 
  DTF
86.01
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
5
 
  Procedures (number)
4.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
108
 
  Time (days)
105.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
4
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
119.3
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
140
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
1
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
3.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
0
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
4
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
1.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
0
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
27
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
1.0
 
  DTF
70.36
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
23.8
 
  Time (days)
275.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
23.4
 
  Registering Property (rank)
5
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
9.0
 
  DTF
92.19
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
2.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
69
 
  Time (days)
3.0
 
  DTF
49.08
 
  Cost (% of property value)
0.0
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
33.1
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
23.5
 
  Time (years)
1.5
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
7.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
20.0
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
4.5
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
0
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
4.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
10.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
0.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
5.5
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
0.5
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
101
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
2.0
 
  DTF
45.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
2.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
7.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
70.1
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
0.0
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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