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Ecuador Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, between Colombia and Peru


Geographic coordinates:
2 00 S, 77 30 W


Map references:
South America


Area:
total:283,561 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 74
land:276,841 sq km
water:6,720 sq km
note:includes Galapagos Islands


Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Nevada


Land boundaries:
total:2,237 km
border countries:Colombia 708 km, Peru 1,529 km


Coastline:
2,237 km


Maritime claims:
territorial sea:200 nm
continental shelf:100 nm from 2,500-m isobath


Climate:
tropical along coast, becoming cooler inland at higher elevations; tropical in Amazonian jungle lowlands


Terrain:
coastal plain (costa), inter-Andean central highlands (sierra), and flat to rolling eastern jungle (oriente)


Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point:Chimborazo 6,267 m
note:due to the fact that the earth is not a perfect sphere and has an equatorial bulge, the highest point on the planet furthest from its center is Mount Chimborazo not Mount Everest, which is merely the highest peak above sea-level


    Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, timber, hydropower


Land use:
arable land:4.51%
permanent crops:5.38%
other:90.11% (2011)


Irrigated land:
8,534 sq km (2003)


Total renewable water resources:
424.4 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
424.4 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
frequent earthquakes; landslides; volcanic activity; floods; periodic droughts


Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; water pollution; pollution from oil production wastes in ecologically sensitive areas of the Amazon Basin and Galapagos Islands


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements


Geography - note:
Cotopaxi in Andes is highest active volcano in world



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Ecuadorian(s)
adjective:Ecuadorian


Ethnic groups:
mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 71.9%, Montubio 7.4%, Afroecuadorian 7.2%, Amerindian 7%, white 6.1%, other 0.4% (2010 census)


Languages:
Spanish (Castillian) 93% (official), Quechua 4.1%, other indigenous 0.7%, foreign 2.2%


Religions:
Roman Catholic 95%, other 5%


Demographic profile:
Ecuador's high poverty and income inequality most affect indigenous, mixed race, and rural populations. The government has increased its social spending to ameliorate these problems, but critics question the efficiency and implementation of its national development plan. Nevertheless, the conditional cash transfer program, which requires participants' children to attend school and have medical check-ups, has helped improve educational attainment and healthcare among poor children. Ecuador is stalled at above replacement level fertility and the population most likely will keep growing rather than stabilize.


Population:
15,654,411 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 68


Age structure:
0-14 years:28.5% (male 2,275,448/female 2,184,706)
15-24 years:18.6% (male 1,478,184/female 1,439,288)
25-54 years:38.9% (male 2,968,757/female 3,124,938)
55-64 years:7.1% (male 544,097/female 562,326)
65 years and over:6.7% (male 514,549/female 562,118) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:56.9 %
youth dependency ratio:46.5 %
elderly dependency ratio:10.5 %
potential support ratio:9.6 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:26.7 years
male:26 years
female:27.3 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
1.37% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 88


Birth rate:
18.87 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 95


Death rate:
5.04 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 185


Net migration rate:
-0.13 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 116


Urbanization:
urban population:67.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:2.13% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
Guayaquil 2.287 million; QUITO (capital) 1.622 million (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years:0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.92 male(s)/female
total population:0.99 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
21.1


    Maternal mortality rate:
110 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:17.93 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 98
male:21.11 deaths/1,000 live births
female:14.58 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


Life expectancy at birth:
total population:76.36 yearscountry comparison to the world: 81
male:73.4 years
female:79.46 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
2.29 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 94


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
72.7% (2004)


Health expenditures:
7.3% of GDP (2011)


Physicians density:
1.69 physicians/1,000 population (2009)


Hospital bed density:
1.6 beds/1,000 population (2010)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 91.6% of population
rural: 75.2% of population
total: 86.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 8.4% of population
rural: 24.8% of population
total: 13.6% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 86.5% of population
rural: 75.9% of population
total: 83.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 13.5% of population
rural: 24.1% of population
total: 16.9% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.6% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 62


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
52,300 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 60


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
2,700 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 53


Major infectious diseases:


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
21.4% (2008)country comparison to the world: 86


Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
6.2% (2004)country comparison to the world: 82


Education expenditures:
4.4% of GDP (2012)country comparison to the world: 94

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:91.6%
male:93.1%
female:90.2% (2011 est.)


Child labor - children ages 5-14:



Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:11.1%country comparison to the world: 105
male:9%
female:15% (2011)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Ecuador
conventional short form:Ecuador
local long form:Republica del Ecuador
local short form:Ecuador


Government type:
republic


Capital:
name:Quito
geographic coordinates:0 13 S, 78 30 W
time difference:UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)


Administrative divisions:
24 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Azuay, Bolivar, Canar, Carchi, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, El Oro, Esmeraldas, Galapagos, Guayas, Imbabura, Loja, Los Rios, Manabi, Morona-Santiago, Napo, Orellana, Pastaza, Pichincha, Santa Elena, Santo Domingo de los Tsachilas, Sucumbios, Tungurahua, Zamora-Chinchipe


Independence:
24 May 1822 (from Spain)


National holiday:
Independence Day (independence of Quito), 10 August (1809)


Constitution:
many previous; latest approved 20 October 2008; amended 2011 (2011)


Legal system:
civil law based on the Chilean civil code with modifications; traditional law in indigenous communities


International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Suffrage:
18-65 years of age, universal and compulsory; 16-18, over 65, and other eligible voters, voluntary


Executive branch:
chief of state:President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government:President Rafael CORREA Delgado (since 15 January 2007); Vice President Jorge GLAS Espinel (since 24 May 2013)
cabinet:Cabinet appointed by the president
elections:the president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a four-year term and can be re-elected for another consecutive term; election last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results:President Rafael CORREA Delgado reelected president; percent of vote - Rafael CORREA Delgado 57.2%, Guillermo LASSO 22.7%, Lucio GUTIERREZ 6.8%, Mauricio RODAS 3.9%, other 9.4%


Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Asamblea Nacional (137 seats; members are elected through a party-list proportional representation system to serve four-year terms)
elections:last held on 17 February 2013 (next to be held in 2017)
election results:percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PAIS 100, CREO 11, PSC 6, AVANZA 5, MUPP 5, PSP 5, other 5; note - defections by members of National Assembly are commonplace, resulting in frequent changes in the numbers of seats held by the various parties


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):National Court of Justice or Corte Nacional de Justicia (consists of 21 judges including the chief justice and organized into 5 specialized chambers); Constitutional Court or Corte Constitucional (consists of 9 judges)
judge selection and term of office:justices of National Court of Justice elected by the Judiciary Council, a 9-member independent body of law professionals; judges elected for 9-year, non-renewable terms, with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the executive, legislative, and Citizen Participation branches of government; judges appointed for 9-year non-renewable terms with one-third of the membership renewed every 3 years
subordinate courts:Fiscal Tribunal; Election Dispute Settlement Courts, provincial courts (one for each province); cantonal courts


    Political parties and leaders:
Alianza PAIS movement [Rafael Vicente CORREA Delgado]
Avanza Party or AVANZA [Ramiro GONZALEZ]
Creating Opportunities Movement or CREO [Guillermo LASSO]
Institutional Renewal and National Action Party or PRIAN [Alvaro NOBOA]
Pachakutik Plurinational Unity Movement or MUPP [Rafael ANTUNI]
Patriotic Society Party or PSP [Lucio GUTIERREZ Borbua]
Popular Democracy Movement or MPD [Luis VILLACIS]
Roldosist Party or PRE
Social Christian Party or PSC [Pascual DEL CIOPPO]
Socialist Party [Fabian SOLANO]
Society United for More Action or SUMA [Mauricio RODAS]
Warrior's Spirit Movement [Jaime NEBOT]


Political pressure groups and leaders:
Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO]


International organization participation:
CAN, CD, CELAC, FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Saskia Nathalie CELY Suarez (since 2 December 2011)
chancery:1050 30th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:[1] (202) 465-8140
FAX:[1] (202) 333-2893
consulate(s) general:Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Haven (CT), New Orleans, New York, Newark (NJ), Phoenix, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Adam E. NAMM (since 26 April 2012)
embassy:Avenida Avigiras E12-170 y Avenida Eloy Alfaro, Quito
mailing address:Avenida Guayacanes N52-205 y Avenida Avigiras
telephone:[593] (2) 398-5000
FAX:[593] (2) 398-5100
consulate(s) general:Guayaquil


Flag description:
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double width), blue, and red with the coat of arms superimposed at the center of the flag; the flag retains the three main colors of the banner of Gran Columbia, the South American republic that broke up in 1830; the yellow color represents sunshine, grain, and mineral wealth, blue the sky, sea, and rivers, and red the blood of patriots spilled in the struggle for freedom and justice


National symbol(s):
Andean condor


National anthem:
name:'Salve, Oh Patria!' (We Salute You Our Homeland)

lyrics/music:Juan Leon MERA/Antonio NEUMANE
note:adopted 1948; Juan Leon MERA wrote the lyrics in 1865; only the chorus and second verse are sung


Economy


Economy - overview:
Ecuador is substantially dependent on its petroleum resources, which have accounted for more than half of the country's export earnings and approximately two-fifths of public sector revenues in recent years. In 1999/2000, Ecuador's economy suffered from a banking crisis, with GDP contracting by 5.3% and poverty increasing significantly. In March 2000, the Congress approved a series of structural reforms that also provided for the adoption of the US dollar as legal tender. Dollarization stabilized the economy, and positive growth returned in the years that followed, helped by high oil prices, remittances, and increased non-traditional exports. From 2002-06 the economy grew an average of 4.3% per year, the highest five-year average in 25 years. After moderate growth in 2007, the economy reached a growth rate of 6.4% in 2008, buoyed by high global petroleum prices and increased public sector investment. President Rafael CORREA Delgado, who took office in January 2007, defaulted in December 2008 on Ecuador's sovereign debt, which, with a total face value of approximately US$3.2 billion, represented about 30% of Ecuador's public external debt. In May 2009, Ecuador bought back 91% of its 'defaulted' bonds via an international reverse auction. Economic policies under the CORREA administration - for example, an announcement in late 2009 of its intention to terminate 13 bilateral investment treaties, including one with the United States - have generated economic uncertainty and discouraged private investment. China has become Ecuador's largest foreign lender since Quito defaulted in 2008, allowing the government to maintain a high rate of social spending; Ecuador contracted with the Chinese government for more than $9.9 billion in forward oil sales, project financing, and budget support loans as of December 2013. Foreign investment levels in Ecuador continue to be the lowest in the region as a result of an unstable regulatory environment, weak rule of law, and the crowding-out effect of public investments. In 2013, oil output marginally reversed a declining trend and production is expected to increase slightly in 2014, although prices will likely remain lower than in previous years. Faced with a 2013 trade deficit of $1.1 billion, Ecuador erected technical barriers to trade in December 2013, causing tensions with its largest trading partners. Ecuador also decriminalized intellectual property rights violations in February 2014.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$157.6 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
$151.5 billion (2012 est.)
$144.2 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$91.41 billion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
5.1% (2012 est.)
7.8% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$10,600 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 116
$9,600 (2012 est.)
$9,200 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
26% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
21.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
19.7% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:62.4%
government consumption:13.4%
investment in fixed capital:26.6%
investment in inventories:0.3%
exports of goods and services:29.4%
imports of goods and services:-32.1%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:5.9%
industry:35.1%
services:59% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
bananas, coffee, cocoa, rice, potatoes, cassava (manioc, tapioca), plantains, sugarcane; cattle, sheep, pigs, beef, pork, dairy products; fish, shrimp; balsa wood


Industries:
petroleum, food processing, textiles, wood products, chemicals


Industrial production growth rate:
3.1%
country comparison to the world: 94
note:excludes oil refining (2013 est.)


Labor force:
6.953 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 64


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:27.8%
industry:17.8%
services:54.4% (2012)


Unemployment rate:
4.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38
4.2% (2011 est.)


    Population below poverty line:
25.6% (December 2013 est)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:1.4%
highest 10%:38.3%
note:data for urban households only (2010 est.)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:
48.5 (December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 23
50.5 (December 2010)
note:data are for urban households


Budget:
revenues:$37 billion
expenditures:$39.3 billion (2013 est.)


Taxes and other revenues:
40.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 104


Public debt:
23.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131
21% of GDP (2012 est.)


Fiscal year:
calendar year


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99
4.5% (2011 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
8.17% (31 December 2011)
country comparison to the world: 32
8.68% (31 December 2010)


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
8.7% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 109
8.17% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$8.59 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
$7.801 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of broad money:
$27.75 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
$24.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$25.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
$22.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$5.911 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Current account balance:
-$827.1 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
-$177 million (2012 est.)


Exports:
$25.48 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$24.65 billion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
petroleum, bananas, cut flowers, shrimp, cacao, coffee, wood, fish


Exports - partners:
US 37.3%, Chile 8.1%, Peru 6.5%, Japan 4.5%, Russia 4.5%, Colombia 4% (2012)


Imports:
$26.22 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71
$24.58 billion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
industrial materials, fuels and lubricants, nondurable consumer goods


Imports - partners:
US 28.4%, China 11.3%, Colombia 8.8%, Peru 4.5% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.625 billion (.)
country comparison to the world: 115
$2.483 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Debt - external:
$19.91 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81
$17.68 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$17.89 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
$17.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$6.33 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
$6.33 billion (31 December 2011 est.)


Exchange rates:
the US dollar became Ecuador's currency in 2001


Energy


Electricity - production:
22.85 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71


Electricity - consumption:
19.38 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 72


Electricity - exports:
14.1 million kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90


Electricity - imports:
1.3 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
5.243 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
55.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 142


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
42.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70


Crude oil - production:
526,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31


Crude oil - exports:
413,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22


Crude oil - imports:
154,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
8.24 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19


Refined petroleum products - production:
207,300 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
280,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45


Refined petroleum products - exports:
28,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69


Refined petroleum products - imports:
135,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42


Natural gas - production:
240 million cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76


Natural gas - consumption:
330 million cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 99


Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92


Natural gas - imports:
25,000 cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77


Natural gas - proved reserves:
6.994 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
29.13 million Mt (2011 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
2.31 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 54


Telephones - mobile cellular:
16.457 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 56


Telephone system:
general assessment:elementary fixed-line service, but increasingly sophisticated mobile-cellular network
domestic:fixed-line services provided by multiple telecommunications operators; fixed-line teledensity stands at about 15 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular use has surged and subscribership has reached 100 per 100 persons
international:country code - 593; landing points for the PAN-AM and South America-1 submarine cables that provide links to the west coast of South America, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, and extending onward to Aruba and the US Virgin Islands in the Caribbean; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)



    Broadcast media:
Ecuador has multiple TV networks and many local channels, as well as more than 300 radio stations; many TV and radio stations are privately owned; the government owns or controls 5 national TV stations and multiple radio stations; broadcast media required by law to give the government free air time to broadcast programs produced by the state (2007)


Internet country code:
.ec


Internet hosts:
170,538 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 76


Internet users:
3.352 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 64



Transportation


Airports
432 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 20


Airports - with paved runways
total:104
over 3,047 m:4
2,438 to 3,047 m:5
1,524 to 2,437 m:18
914 to 1,523 m:26
under 914 m:51 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:328
914 to 1,523 m:37
under 914 m:
291 (2013)


Heliports
2 (2013)


Pipelines
extra heavy crude 527 km; gas 71 km; oil 2,131 km; refined products 1,526 km (2013)


Railways
total:965 kmcountry comparison to the world: 90
narrow gauge:965 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)


    Roadways
total:43,670 kmcountry comparison to the world: 84
paved:6,472 km
unpaved:37,198 km (2007)


Waterways
1,500 km (most inaccessible) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 53


Merchant marine
total:44country comparison to the world: 72
by type:cargo 1, chemical tanker 4, liquefied gas 1, passenger 9, petroleum tanker 28, refrigerated cargo 1
registered in other countries:4 (Panama 3, Peru 1) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Esmeraldas, Manta, Puerto Bolivar
river port(s):Guayaquil (Guayas)
container port(s) (TEUs):Guayaquil (1,405,762)


Military


Military branches
Ecuadorian Armed Forces: Ecuadorian Land Force (Fuerza Terrestre Ecuatoriana, FTE), Ecuadorian Navy (Fuerza Naval del Ecuador (FNE), includes Naval Infantry, Naval Aviation, Coast Guard), Ecuadorian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Ecuatoriana, FAE) (2012)


Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for selective conscript military service; conscription has been suspended; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; Air Force 18-22 years of age, Ecadorian birth requirement; 1-year service obligation (2012)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:3,728,906
females age 16-49:3,844,918 (2010 est.)


Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:2,834,213
females age 16-49:3,269,535 (2010 est.)


    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:152,593
female:147,143 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
2.83% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 25
3.2% of GDP (2011)
2.83% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia penetrate across Ecuador's shared border, which thousands of Colombians also cross to escape the violence in their home country


Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):122,276 (Colombia) (2013)


    Illicit drugs
significant transit country for cocaine originating in Colombia and Peru, with much of the US-bound cocaine passing through Ecuadorian Pacific waters; importer of precursor chemicals used in production of illicit narcotics; attractive location for cash-placement by drug traffickers laundering money because of dollarization and weak anti-money-laundering regime; increased activity on the northern frontier by trafficking groups and Colombian insurgents (2008)

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in Ecuador 2017


           
 

 
Ecuador

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
114
57.97
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
166
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
118
 
  DTF
70.61
 
  DTF
46.67
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
11.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
4.7
 
  Time - Men (number)
48.5
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
4.3
 
  Cost - Men (days)
21.0
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
2.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
11.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
48.5
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
21.0
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
0.0
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
8.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
76
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
2.0
 
  DTF
71.03
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
15.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
137
 
  Time (days)
114.0
 
  DTF
59.25
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
0.8
 
  Payments (number per year)
8.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
8.0
 
  Time (hours per year)
664.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
32.5
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
16.3
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
0.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
13.7
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
3.2
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
49.3
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
2.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
97
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
95
 
  DTF
68.65
 
  DTF
69.13
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
96
 
  Procedures (number)
7.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
560
 
  Time (days)
74.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
24
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
606.3
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
140
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
6.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
24
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
2.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
250
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
120
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
1.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
75
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
0.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
96
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
1.0
 
  DTF
56.68
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
10.7
 
  Time (days)
588.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
27.2
 
  Registering Property (rank)
69
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
7.0
 
  DTF
67.53
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
7.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
157
 
  Time (days)
38.0
 
  DTF
25.17
 
  Cost (% of property value)
2.1
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
17.7
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
15.5
 
  Time (years)
5.3
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
4.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
18.0
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
4.5
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
0
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
2.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
5.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
6.0
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
-1
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
2.0
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
0.0
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
101
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
1.0
 
  DTF
45.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
8.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
0.0
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
58.3
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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