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Estonia Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia


Geographic coordinates:
59 00 N, 26 00 E


Map references:
Europe


Area:
total:45,228 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 133
land:42,388 sq km
water:2,840 sq km
note:includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea


Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined


Land boundaries:
total:657 km
border countries:Latvia 333 km, Russia 324 km


Coastline:
3,794 km


Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
exclusive economic zone:limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states


Climate:
maritime; wet, moderate winters, cool summers


Terrain:
marshy, lowlands; flat in the north, hilly in the south


Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point:Suur Munamagi 318 m


    Natural resources:
oil shale, peat, rare earth elements, phosphorite, clay, limestone, sand, dolomite, arable land, sea mud


Land use:
arable land:13.97%
permanent crops:0.13%
other:85.89% (2011)


Irrigated land:
4.58 sq km (2010)


Total renewable water resources:
12.81 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
12.81 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
sometimes flooding occurs in the spring


Environment - current issues:
air polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; however, the amount of pollutants emitted to the air have fallen steadily, the emissions of 2000 were 80% less than in 1980; the amount of unpurified wastewater discharged to water bodies in 2000 was 1/20 the level of 1980; in connection with the start-up of new water purification plants, the pollution load of wastewater decreased; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas need to be monitored; coastal seawater is polluted in certain locations


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements


Geography - note:
the mainland terrain is flat, boggy, and partly wooded; offshore lie more than 1,500 islands



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Estonian(s)
adjective:Estonian


Ethnic groups:
Estonian 68.7%, Russian 24.8%, Ukrainian 1.7%, Belarusian 1%, Finn 0.6%, other 1.6%, unspecified 1.6% (2011 est.)


Languages:
Estonian (official) 68.5%, Russian 29.6%, Ukrainian 0.6%, other 1.2%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)


Religions:
Lutheran 9.9%, Orthodox 16.2%, other Christian (including Methodist, Seventh-Day Adventist, Roman Catholic, Pentecostal) 2.2%, other 0.9%, none 54.1%, unspecified 16.7% (2011 est.)


Population:
1,257,921 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 158


Age structure:
0-14 years:15.6% (male 101,018/female 95,204)
15-24 years:11.2% (male 72,318/female 68,373)
25-54 years:41.5% (male 250,244/female 271,450)
55-64 years:13.2% (male 71,518/female 94,029)
65 years and over:18.2% (male 77,492/female 156,275) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:52 %
youth dependency ratio:24.3 %
elderly dependency ratio:27.7 %
potential support ratio:3.6 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:41.2 years
male:37.6 years
female:44.5 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
-0.68% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 228


Birth rate:
10.29 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 187


Death rate:
13.69 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 13


Net migration rate:
-3.37 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 185


Urbanization:
urban population:69.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:0.02% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
TALLINN (capital) 400,000 (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years:0.92 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.84 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.49 male(s)/female
total population:0.84 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
26.4 (2011 est.)


Maternal mortality rate:
2 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:6.7 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 164
male:7.81 deaths/1,000 live births
female:5.52 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:74.07 yearscountry comparison to the world: 118
male:68.85 years
female:79.61 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
1.46 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 196


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
63.4%


Health expenditures:
6% of GDP (2011)


Physicians density:
3.34 physicians/1,000 population (2010)


Hospital bed density:
5.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.8% of population
rural: 97.6% of population
total: 99.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.2% of population
rural: 2.4% of population
total: 0.9% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 95.8% of population
rural: 93.8% of population
total: 95.2% of population
unimproved:
urban: 4.2% of population
rural: 6.2% of population
total: 4.8% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.2% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 38


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
9,900 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 104


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 500 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 94


Major infectious diseases:


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
20.6% (2008)country comparison to the world: 95


Education expenditures:
5.7% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 52

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:99.8%
male:99.8%
female:99.8% (2011 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:17 years
male:16 years
female:18 years (2010)


Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:20.9%country comparison to the world: 56
male:23.4%
female:17.9% (2012)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Estonia
conventional short form:Estonia
local long form:Eesti Vabariik
local short form:Eesti
former:Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic


Government type:
parliamentary republic


Capital:
name:Tallinn
geographic coordinates:59 26 N, 24 43 E
time difference:UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October


Administrative divisions:
15 counties (maakonnad, singular - maakond); Harjumaa (Tallinn), Hiiumaa (Kardla), Ida-Virumaa (Johvi), Jarvamaa (Paide), Jogevamaa (Jogeva), Laanemaa (Haapsalu), Laane-Virumaa (Rakvere), Parnumaa (Parnu), Polvamaa (Polva), Raplamaa (Rapla), Saaremaa (Kuressaare), Tartumaa (Tartu), Valgamaa (Valga), Viljandimaa (Viljandi), Vorumaa (Voru)


Independence:
20 August 1991 (declared); 6 September 1991 (recognized by the Soviet Union)


National holiday:
Independence Day, 24 February (1918); note - 24 February 1918 was the date Estonia declared its independence from Soviet Russia and established its statehood; 20 August 1991 was the date it declared its independence from the Soviet Union


Constitution:
several previous; latest adopted 28 June 1992; amended several times, last in 2012 (2012)


Legal system:
civil law system


International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal for all Estonian citizens


Executive branch:
chief of state:President Toomas Hendrik ILVES (since 9 October 2006)
head of government:Taavi ROIVAS (since 26 March 2014)
cabinet:Ministers appointed by the prime minister, approved by Parliament
elections:president elected by Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); if a candidate does not secure two-thirds of the votes after three rounds of balloting in the Parliament, then an electoral assembly (made up of Parliament plus members of local councils) elects the president, choosing between the two candidates with the highest number of votes; election last held on 29 August 2011 (next to be held in the fall of 2016); prime minister nominated by the president and approved by Parliament
election results:Toomas Hendrik ILVES reelected president; parliamentary vote - Toomas Hendrik ILVES 73, Indrek TARAND 25


Legislative branch:
unicameral Parliament or Riigikogu (101 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections:last held on 6 March 2011 (next to be held in March 2015)
election results:percent of vote by party - Estonian Reform Party 28.6%, Center Party of Estonia 23.3%, IRL 20.5%, SDE 17.1%, Estonian Greens 3.8%, Estonian People's Union 2.1%, other 4.6%; seats by party - Estonian Reform Party 33, Center Party 21, IRL 23, SDE 19, unaffiliated 5


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and organized into the Civil Chamber with a chamber chairman and 6 justices, the Criminal Chamber with a chamber chairman and 5 justices, the Administrative Law Chamber with a chamber chairman and 4 justices, and the Constitutional Review Chamber with 9 members - the chief justice and 2 justices from the Civil Chamber, 3 from the Criminal Chamber and 3 from the Administrative chamber)
judge selection and term of office:the chief justice is proposed by the president and appointed by the Riigikogu; other justices proposed by the chief justice and appointed by the Riigikogu; justices appointed for life
subordinate courts:circuit (appellate) courts; administrative, county, city, and specialized courts


    Political parties and leaders:
Center Party of Estonia (Keskerakond) [Edgar SAVISAAR]
Estonian Greens (Rohelised) [Aleksander LAANE]
Estonian Conservative People's Party (Konservatiivne Rahvaerakond) or EKRE [Mart HELME]
Estonian Reform Party (Reformierakond) [Taavi ROIVAS]
Social Democratic Party or SDE [Sven MIKSER]
Union of Pro Patria and Res Publica (Isamaa je Res Publica Liit) or IRL [Urmas REINSALU]


International organization participation:
Australia Group, BA, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, ESA (cooperating state), EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Marina KALJURAND (since 6 September 2011)
chancery:2131 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 588-0101
FAX:[1] (202) 588-0108
consulate(s) general:New York


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Jeffrey D. LEVINE (since 24 July 2012)
embassy:Kentmanni 20, 15099 Tallinn
mailing address:use embassy street address
telephone:[372] 668-8100
FAX:[372] 668-8134


Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), black, and white; various interpretations are linked to the flag colors; blue represents faith, loyalty, and devotion, while also reminiscent of the sky, sea, and lakes of the country; black symbolizes the soil of the country and the dark past and suffering endured by the Estonian people; white refers to the striving towards enlightenment and virtue, and is the color of birch bark and snow, as well as summer nights illuminated by the midnight sun


National symbol(s):
barn swallow, cornflower


National anthem:
name:'Mu isamaa, mu onn ja room' (My Native Land, My Pride and Joy)

lyrics/music:Johann Voldemar JANNSEN/Fredrik PACIUS
note:adopted 1920, though banned between 1940 and 1990 under Soviet occupation; the anthem, used in Estonia since 1869, shares the same melody with that of Finland but has different lyrics


Economy


Economy - overview:
Estonia, a member of the European Union and the eurozone since 2004, has a modern market-based economy and one of the higher per capita income levels in Central Europe and the Baltic region. Estonia's successive governments have pursued a free market, pro-business economic agenda and have wavered little in their commitment to pro-market reforms. The current government has followed sound fiscal policies that have resulted in balanced budgets and low public debt. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and strong trade ties with Finland, Sweden, Russia, and Germany. Estonia's economy fell into recession in mid-2008, as a result of an investment and consumption slump following the bursting of the real estate market bubble and a decrease in export demand as result of economic slowdown in the rest of Europe, but the economy has recovered strongly in the last five years. Growth was expected to top 2% in 2014, before the events in Ukraine. Estonia adopted the euro on 1 January 2011.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$29.94 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
$29.49 billion (2012 est.)
$28.37 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$24.28 billion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
1.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 160
3.9% (2012 est.)
9.6% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$22,400 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 66
$22,000 (2012 est.)
$21,200 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
23.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 57
26.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
26.9% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:50.6%
government consumption:19%
investment in fixed capital:24.5%
investment in inventories:0.9%
exports of goods and services:90.4%
imports of goods and services:-90.3%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:3.9%
industry:30%
services:66.2% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
grain, potatoes, vegetables; livestock and dairy products; fish


Industries:
engineering, electronics, wood and wood products, textiles; information technology, telecommunications


Industrial production growth rate:
3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97

Labor force:
692,900 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:4.2%
industry:20.2%
services:75.6% (2010)


Unemployment rate:
10.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
10.2% (2012 est.)


Population below poverty line:
17.5% (2010)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:2.7%
highest 10%:27.7% (2004)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:
31.3 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 111
37 (1999)


Budget:
revenues:$8.489 billion
expenditures:$8.615 billion (2013 est.)


    Taxes and other revenues:
35% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-0.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58


Public debt:
6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 157
5.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds


Fiscal year:
calendar year


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.4% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 124
3.9% (2012 est.)


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
5.5% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 136
5.75% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$9.994 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
$8.191 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
note:this figure represents the US dollar value of Estonian kroon in circulation prior to Estonia's joining the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the EMU; individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders


Stock of broad money:
$13.64 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
$12.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$19.16 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
$19.24 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$2.332 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Current account balance:
-$352.3 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
-$267.7 million (2012 est.)


Exports:
$15.11 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
$14.46 billion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
machinery and electrical equipment 21%, wood and wood products 9%, metals 9%, furniture 7%, vehicles and parts 5%, food products and beverages 4%, textiles 4%, plastics 3%


Exports - partners:
Sweden 16.8%, Finland 15.3%, Russia 12.7%, Latvia 9.2%, Lithuania 5.7%, Germany 4.8% (2012)


Imports:
$16.38 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85
$15.6 billion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
machinery and electrical equipment, mineral fuels, chemical products, foodstuffs, plastics, textiles


Imports - partners:
Finland 15.1%, Germany 10.7%, Sweden 10.7%, Latvia 10%, Lithuania 9%, Poland 6.6%, China 4.4%, Russia 4.1% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$372.3 million (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
$300.7 million (31 December 2012 est.)


Debt - external:
$26.74 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
$25.69 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$21.73 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69
$20.87 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$7.34 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
$7.84 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
kroon (EEK) per US dollar -
0.7697 (2013 est.)
0.7778 (2012 est.)
11.81 (2010 est.)
11.23 (2009)
10.7 (2008)


Energy


Electricity - production:
12.19 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91


Electricity - consumption:
7.948 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96


Electricity - exports:
4.95 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29


Electricity - imports:
2.71 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
2.751 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
93.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 83


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 148


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
6.4% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 38


Crude oil - production:
11,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 88


Crude oil - exports:
7,624 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60


Crude oil - imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 181


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127


Refined petroleum products - production:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 139


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
26,340 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120


Refined petroleum products - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 173


Refined petroleum products - imports:
22,670 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 101


Natural gas - production:
0 cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125


Natural gas - consumption:
701 million cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95


Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94


Natural gas - imports:
670 million cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65


Natural gas - proved reserves:
0 cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 133


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
20.26 million Mt (2011 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
448,200 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 99


Telephones - mobile cellular:
2.07 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 145


Telephone system:
general assessment:foreign investment in the form of joint business ventures greatly improved telephone service with a wide range of high quality voice, data, and Internet services available
domestic:substantial fiber-optic cable systems carry telephone, TV, and radio traffic in the digital mode; Internet services are widely available; schools and libraries are connected to the Internet, a large percentage of the population files income-tax returns online, and online voting was used for the first time in the 2005 local elections
international:country code - 372; fiber-optic cables to Finland, Sweden, Latvia, and Russia provide worldwide packet-switched service; 2 international switches are located in Tallinn (2011)



    Broadcast media:
the publicly owned broadcaster, Eesti Rahvusringhaaling (ERR), operates 2 TV channels and 5 radio networks; growing number of private commercial radio stations broadcasting nationally, regionally, and locally; fully transitioned to digital television in 2010; national private TV channels expanding service; a range of channels are aimed at Russian-speaking viewers; high penetration rate for cable TV services with more than half of Estonian households connected (2008)


Internet country code:
.ee


Internet hosts:
865,494 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 49


Internet users:
971,700 (2009)
country comparison to the world: 102



Transportation


Airports
18 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 141


Airports - with paved runways
total:13
over 3,047 m:2
2,438 to 3,047 m:8
1,524 to 2,437 m:2
914 to 1,523 m:1 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:5
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m:1
under 914 m:
3 (2013)


Heliports
1 (2012)


Pipelines
gas 868 km (2013)


Railways
total:1,196 kmcountry comparison to the world: 85
broad gauge:1,196 km 1.520-m and 1.524-m gauge (133 km electrified) (2011)


    Roadways
total:58,412 km (includes urban roads)country comparison to the world: 73
paved:10,427 km (includes 115 km of expressways)
unpaved:47,985 km (2011)


Waterways
335 km (320 km are navigable year round) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 91


Merchant marine
total:25country comparison to the world: 89
by type:cargo 4, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 18, petroleum tanker 2
foreign-owned:3 (Germany 1, Norway 2)
registered in other countries:63 (Antigua and Barbuda 10, Belize 1, Cambodia 1, Canada 1, Cook Islands 1, Cyprus 6, Dominica 6, Finland 2, Latvia 3, Malta 16, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 8, Sierra Leone 2, Sweden 3, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Kuivastu, Kunda, Muuga, Parnu Reid, Sillamae, Tallinn


Military


Military branches
Estonian Defense Forces (Eesti Kaitsevagi): Land Force (Maavagi), Navy (Merevagi), Air Force (Ohuvagi), Defense League (Kaitseliit) (2012)


Military service age and obligation
18-27 for compulsory military or governmental service, conscript service requirement 8-11 months depending on education; NCOs, reserve officers, and specialists serve 11 months (2013)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:291,801
females age 16-49:302,696 (2010 est.)


Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:210,854
females age 16-49:251,185 (2010 est.)


    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:6,668
female:6,309 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
2% of GDP (2013)
country comparison to the world: 39
1.92% of GDP (2012)
1.69% of GDP (2011)
1.92% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
Russia and Estonia in May 2005 signed a technical border agreement, but Russia in June 2005 recalled its signature after the Estonian parliament added to its domestic ratification act a historical preamble referencing the Soviet occupation and Estonia's pre-war borders under the 1920 Treaty of Tartu; Russia contends that the preamble allows Estonia to make territorial claims on Russia in the future, while Estonian officials deny that the preamble has any legal impact on the treaty text; Russia demands better treatment of the Russian-speaking population in Estonia; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Estonia implements strict Schengen border rules with Russia


    Refugees and internally displaced persons
stateless persons:94,235 (2012); note - following independence in 1991, automatic citizenship was restricted to those who were Estonian citizens prior to the 1940 Soviet occupation and their descendants; thousands of ethnic Russians remained stateless when forced to choose between passing Estonian language and citizenship tests or applying for Russian citizenship; one reason for demurring on Estonian citizenship was to retain the right of visa-free travel to Russia; stateless residents can vote in local elections but not general elections; stateless parents who have been lawful residents of Estonia for at least five years can apply for citizenship for their children before they turn 15


Illicit drugs
growing producer of synthetic drugs; increasingly important transshipment zone for cannabis, cocaine, opiates, and synthetic drugs since joining the European Union and the Schengen Accord; potential money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking is a concern, as is possible use of the gambling sector to launder funds; major use of opiates and ecstasy

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in Estonia 2017


           
 

 
Estonia

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
12
81.05
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
14
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
53
 
  DTF
95.13
 
  DTF
60.00
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
3.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Time - Men (number)
3.5
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
5.7
 
  Cost - Men (days)
1.2
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
8.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
3.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
3.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
3.5
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
1.2
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
6.3
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
16.4
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
9.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
4.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
9
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
6.0
 
  DTF
82.57
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
10.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
21
 
  Time (days)
102.0
 
  DTF
88.04
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
0.2
 
  Payments (number per year)
8.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
11.0
 
  Time (hours per year)
84.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
2.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
48.7
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
7.9
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
38.8
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
2.0
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
98.6
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
1.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
17
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
38
 
  DTF
99.92
 
  DTF
83.20
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
2
 
  Procedures (number)
5.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
0
 
  Time (days)
91.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
1
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
173.0
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
0
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
0
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
3.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
0
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
1
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
1.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
0
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
11
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
1.0
 
  DTF
75.16
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
10.5
 
  Time (days)
425.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
21.9
 
  Registering Property (rank)
6
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
13.5
 
  DTF
91.02
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
3.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
42
 
  Time (days)
17.5
 
  DTF
65.46
 
  Cost (% of property value)
0.5
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
40.3
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
27.5
 
  Time (years)
3.0
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
9.0
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
4.0
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
0
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
14.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
7.5
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
2.5
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
0.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
5.5
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
32
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
4.0
 
  DTF
70.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
7.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
7.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
0.0
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
35.1
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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