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Germany Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark


Geographic coordinates:
51 00 N, 9 00 E


Map references:
Europe


Area:
total:357,022 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 63
land:348,672 sq km
water:8,350 sq km


Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>


Land boundaries:
total:3,694 km
border countries:Austria 801 km, Belgium 133 km, Czech Republic 704 km, Denmark 140 km, France 418 km, Luxembourg 128 km, Netherlands 575 km, Poland 447 km, Switzerland 348 km


Coastline:
2,389 km


Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


Climate:
temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm mountain (foehn) wind


Terrain:
lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south


Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Neuendorf bei Wilster -3.54 m
highest point:Zugspitze 2,963 m


    Natural resources:
coal, lignite, natural gas, iron ore, copper, nickel, uranium, potash, salt, construction materials, timber, arable land


Land use:
arable land:33.25%
permanent crops:0.56%
other:66.19% (2011)


Irrigated land:
5,157 sq km (2006)


Total renewable water resources:
154 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
154 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
flooding


Environment - current issues:
emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government established a mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power over the next 15 years; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements


Geography - note:
strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: German(s)
adjective:German


Ethnic groups:
German 91.5%, Turkish 2.4%, other 6.1% (made up largely of Greek, Italian, Polish, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, Spanish)


Languages:
German (official)


Religions:
Protestant 34%, Roman Catholic 34%, Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated or other 28.3%


Population:
80,996,685 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 18


Age structure:
0-14 years:13% (male 5,386,525/female 5,107,336)
15-24 years:10.6% (male 4,367,713/female 4,188,566)
25-54 years:41.7% (male 17,116,346/female 16,664,995)
55-64 years:13.6% (male 5,463,221/female 5,574,166)
65 years and over:20.9% (male 7,468,552/female 9,659,265) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:52.1 %
youth dependency ratio:19.8 %
elderly dependency ratio:32.3 %
potential support ratio:3.1 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:46.1 years
male:45.1 years
female:47.2 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
-0.18% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 212


Birth rate:
8.42 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 219


Death rate:
11.29 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 31


Net migration rate:
1.06 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 60


Urbanization:
urban population:73.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:-0.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
BERLIN (capital) 3.462 million; Hamburg 1.796 million; Munich 1.364 million; Cologne 1.006 million (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.76 male(s)/female
total population:0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
29.2 (2012 est.)


Maternal mortality rate:
7 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:3.46 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 209
male:3.75 deaths/1,000 live births
female:3.14 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:80.44 yearscountry comparison to the world: 28
male:78.15 years
female:82.86 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
1.43 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 203


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
66.2%


Health expenditures:
11.1% of GDP (2011)


Physicians density:
3.69 physicians/1,000 population (2010)


Hospital bed density:
8.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 138


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
67,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 56


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 79


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
25.1% (2008)country comparison to the world: 59


Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
1.1% (2006)country comparison to the world: 133


Education expenditures:
5.1% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 74

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:99%
male:99%
female:99% (2003 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:16 years
male:16 years
female:16 years (2011)


Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:8.1%country comparison to the world: 121
male:8.8%
female:7.4% (2012)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Germany
conventional short form:Germany
local long form:Bundesrepublik Deutschland
local short form:Deutschland
former:German Empire, German Republic, German Reich


Government type:
federal republic


Capital:
name:Berlin
geographic coordinates:52 31 N, 13 24 E
time difference:UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October


Administrative divisions:
16 states (Laender, singular - Land); Baden-Wuerttemberg, Bayern (Bavaria), Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hessen (Hesse), Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania), Niedersachsen (Lower Saxony), Nordrhein-Westfalen (North Rhine-Westphalia), Rheinland-Pfalz (Rhineland-Palatinate), Saarland, Sachsen (Saxony), Sachsen-Anhalt (Saxony-Anhalt), Schleswig-Holstein, Thueringen (Thuringia); note - Bayern, Sachsen, and Thueringen refer to themselves as free states (Freistaaten, singular - Freistaat)


Independence:
18 January 1871 (establishment of the German Empire); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed on 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed on 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; West Germany and East Germany unified on 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights on 15 March 1991; notable earlier dates: 10 August 843 (Eastern Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 2 February 962 (crowning of OTTO I, recognized as the first Holy Roman Emperor)


National holiday:
Unity Day, 3 October (1990)


Constitution:
previous 1919 (Weimar Constitution); latest drafted 10 to 23 August 1948, approved 12 May 1949, promulgated 23 May 1949, entered into force 24 May 1949; amended many times, last in 2012 (2012)


Legal system:
civil law system


International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal


Executive branch:
chief of state:President Joachim GAUCK (since 23 March 2012)
head of government:Chancellor Angela MERKEL (since 22 November 2005)
cabinet:Cabinet or Bundesminister (Federal Ministers) appointed by the president on the recommendation of the chancellor
elections:president elected for a five-year term (eligible for a second term) by a Federal Convention, including all members of the Federal Parliament (Bundestag) and an equal number of delegates elected by the state parliaments; election last held on 19 February 2012 (next to be held by June 2017); chancellor elected by an absolute majority of the Federal Parliament for a four-year term; Federal Parliament vote for Chancellor last held on 17 December 2013 (next to be held after the September 2017 elections)
election results:Joachim GAUCK elected president; received 991 votes of the Federal Convention against 126 for Beate KLARSFELD and 3 for Olaf ROSE; Angela MERKEL reelected chancellor; vote by Federal Parliament 462 to 150 with four abstentions


Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature consists of the Federal Council or Bundesrat (69 votes; state governments sit in the Council; each has three to six votes in proportion to population and is required to vote as a block) and the Federal Parliament or Bundestag (630 seats; members elected by popular vote for a four-year term under a system of personalized proportional representation; a party must win 5% of the national vote or three direct mandates to gain proportional representation and caucus recognition)
elections:Bundestag - last held on 22 September 2013 (next to be held no later than autumn 2017); most all postwar German governments have been coalitions; note - there are no elections for the Bundesrat; composition is determined by the composition of the state-level governments; the composition of the Bundesrat has the potential to change any time one of the 16 states holds an election
election results:Bundestag - percent of vote by party - CDU/CSU 41.5%, SPD 25.7%, Left 8.6%, Greens 8.4%, FDP 4.8%, other 10.9%; seats by party - CDU/CSU 311, SPD 193, Left 64, Greens 63


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Federal Court of Justice (court consists of 127 judges including the court president, vice-presidents, presiding judges, and other judges, and organized into 25 Senates subdivided into 12 civil panels, 5 criminal panels, and 8 special panels; Federal Constitutional Court or Bundesverfassungsgericht (consists of 2 Senates each subdivided into 3 chambers, each with a chairman and 8 members)
judge selection and term of office:Federal Court of Justice judges selected by the Judges Election Committee, which consists of the Secretaries of Justice from each of the 16 federated States and 16 members appointed by the Federal Parliament; judges appointed by the president of Germany; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65; Federal Constitutional Court judges - one-half elected by the House of Representatives and one-half by the Senate; judges appointed for 12-year terms with mandatory retirement at age 68
subordinate courts:Federal Administrative Court; Federal Finance Court; Federal Labor Court; Federal Social Court; each of the 16 German states or Land has its own constitutional court and a hierarchy of ordinary (civil, criminal, family) and specialized (administrative, finance, labor, social) courts


    Political parties and leaders:
Alliance '90/Greens [Cem OEZDEMIR and Simone PETER]
Christian Democratic Union or CDU [Angela MERKEL]
Christian Social Union or CSU [Horst SEEHOFER]
Free Democratic Party or FDP [Christian LINDNER]
Left Party or Die Linke [Katia KIPPING and Bernd RIEXINGER]
Social Democratic Party or SPD [Sigmar GABRIEL]


Political pressure groups and leaders:
business associations and employers' organizations


International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS, CD, CDB, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Hans Peter WITTIG (since 21 May 2014)
chancery:2300 M Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:[1] (202) 298-4000
FAX:[1] (202) 298-4261
consulate(s) general:Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador John B. EMERSON (since 7 August 2013)
embassy:Pariser Platz 2, 10117 Berlin
mailing address:Unit 5090, Box 1000, DPO AE09265
telephone:[49] (30) 48305-0
FAX:[49] (30) 8305-1215
consulate(s) general:Duesseldorf, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg, Leipzig, Munich


Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of black (top), red, and gold; these colors have played an important role in German history and can be traced back to the medieval banner of the Holy Roman Emperor - a black eagle with red claws and beak on a gold field


National symbol(s):
golden eagle


National anthem:
name:'Das Lied der Deutschen' (Song of the Germans)

lyrics/music:August Heinrich HOFFMANN VON FALLERSLEBEN/Franz Joseph HAYDN
note:adopted 1922; the anthem, also known as 'Deutschlandlied' (Song of Germany), was originally adopted for its connection to the March 1848 liberal revolution; following appropriation by the Nazis of the first verse, specifically the phrase, 'Deutschland, Deutschland ueber alles' (Germany, Germany above all) to promote nationalism, it was banned after 1945; in 1952, its third verse was adopted by West Germany as its national anthem; in 1990, it became the national anthem for the reunited Germany


Economy


Economy - overview:
The German economy - the fifth largest economy in the world in PPP terms and Europe's largest - is a leading exporter of machinery, vehicles, chemicals, and household equipment and benefits from a highly skilled labor force. Like its Western European neighbors, Germany faces significant demographic challenges to sustained long-term growth. Low fertility rates and declining net immigration are increasing pressure on the country's social welfare system and necessitate structural reforms. Reforms launched by the government of Chancellor Gerhard SCHROEDER (1998-2005), deemed necessary to address chronically high unemployment and low average growth, has contributed to strong growth and falling unemployment. These advances, as well as a government subsidized, reduced working hour scheme, help explain the relatively modest increase in unemployment during the 2008-09 recession - the deepest since World War II - and its decrease to 5.3% in 2013. The new German government introduced a minimum wage of $11 per hour to take effect in 2015. Stimulus and stabilization efforts initiated in 2008 and 2009 and tax cuts introduced in Chancellor Angela MERKEL's second term increased Germany's total budget deficit - including federal, state, and municipal - to 4.1% in 2010, but slower spending and higher tax revenues reduced the deficit to 0.8% in 2011 and in 2012 Germany reached a budget surplus of 0.1%. A constitutional amendment approved in 2009 limits the federal government to structural deficits of no more than 0.35% of GDP per annum as of 2016 though the target was already reached in 2012. Following the March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, Chancellor Angela MERKEL announced in May 2011 that eight of the country's 17 nuclear reactors would be shut down immediately and the remaining plants would close by 2022. Germany hopes to replace nuclear power with renewable energy. Before the shutdown of the eight reactors, Germany relied on nuclear power for 23% of its electricity generating capacity and 46% of its base-load electricity production.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$3.227 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6
$3.211 trillion (2012 est.)
$3.182 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$3.593 trillion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
0.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185
0.9% (2012 est.)
3.4% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$39,500 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$39,200 (2012 est.)
$38,900 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
24.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50
24.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
24.4% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:57.6%
government consumption:19.4%
investment in fixed capital:17.5%
investment in inventories:0.1%
exports of goods and services:49.5%
imports of goods and services:-44.1%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:0.8%
industry:30.1%
services:69%
(2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; milk products; cattle, pigs, poultry


Industries:
among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, automobiles, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles


Industrial production growth rate:
-0.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 167

Labor force:
44.2 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:1.6%
industry:24.6%
services:73.8%
(2011)


Unemployment rate:
5.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
5.5% (2012 est.)


Population below poverty line:
15.5% (2010 est.)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:3.6%
highest 10%:24% (2000)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:
27 (2006)
country comparison to the world: 130
30 (1994)


Budget:
revenues:$1.626 trillion
expenditures:$1.624 trillion (2013 est.)


    Taxes and other revenues:
45.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
0.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41


Public debt:
79.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
81% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises the sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government and social security funds; the series are presented as a percentage of GDP and in millions of euro; GDP used as a denominator is the gross domestic product at current market prices; data expressed in national currency are converted into euro using end-of-year exchange rates provided by the European Central Bank


Fiscal year:
calendar year


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
2.1% (2012 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
0.75% (31 December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 122
1.5% (31 December 2010)
note:this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
2.8% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 168
3.07% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$2.158 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$2.025 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
note:see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders


Stock of broad money:
$4.551 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$4.342 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$4.457 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$4.277 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.486 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Current account balance:
$257.1 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 1
$238.5 billion (2012 est.)


Exports:
$1.493 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$1.46 trillion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
motor vehicles, machinery, chemicals, computer and electronic products, electrical equipment, pharmaceuticals, metals, transport equipment, foodstuffs, textiles, rubber and plastic products


Exports - partners:
France 9.21%, United States 7.85%, United Kingdom 6.53%, Netherlands 6.33%, China 5.91%, Italy 5.05%, Austria 5.03%, Switzerland 4.3%, Belgium 4.04% (2013 est.)


Imports:
$1.233 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$1.222 trillion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
machinery, data processing equipment, vehicles, chemicals, oil and gas, metals, electric equipment, pharmaceuticals, foodstuffs, agricultural products


Imports - partners:
Netherlands 12.88%, France 7.61%, China 6.25%, Belgium 6.13%, Italy 5.31%, United Kingdom 4.61%, Austria 4.33%, United States 4.19%, Switzerland 4.3%, Austria 4.1%, Poland 4% (2013 est.)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$248.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$238.9 billion (31 December 2011 est.)


Debt - external:
$5.717 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$5.338 trillion (31 December 2011)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$1.335 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
$1.307 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.871 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
$1.788 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)


Energy


Electricity - production:
526.6 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10


Electricity - consumption:
582.5 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7


Electricity - exports:
66.81 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2


Electricity - imports:
46.27 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
178.4 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 7


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
51% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 154


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 123


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
36% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3


Crude oil - production:
169,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42


Crude oil - exports:
14,260 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 58


Crude oil - imports:
1.876 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
254.2 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56


Refined petroleum products - production:
2.198 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
2.4 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9


Refined petroleum products - exports:
376,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18


Refined petroleum products - imports:
758,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9


Natural gas - production:
9 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44


Natural gas - consumption:
75.2 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9


Natural gas - exports:
18.17 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19


Natural gas - imports:
87.96 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4


Natural gas - proved reserves:
125 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
814 million Mt (2012 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
50.7 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 4


Telephones - mobile cellular:
107.7 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 11


Telephone system:
general assessment:Germany has one of the world's most technologically advanced telecommunications systems; as a result of intensive capital expenditures since reunification, the formerly backward system of the eastern part of the country, dating back to World War II, has been modernized and integrated with that of the western part
domestic:Germany is served by an extensive system of automatic telephone exchanges connected by modern networks of fiber-optic cable, coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, and a domestic satellite system; cellular telephone service is widely available, expanding rapidly, and includes roaming service to many foreign countries
international:country code - 49; Germany's international service is excellent worldwide, consisting of extensive land and undersea cable facilities as well as earth stations in the Inmarsat, Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik satellite systems (2011)



    Broadcast media:
a mixture of publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008)


Internet country code:
.de


Internet hosts:
20.043 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 6


Internet users:
65.125 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 5



Transportation


Airports
539 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 13


Airports - with paved runways
total:318
over 3,047 m:14
2,438 to 3,047 m:49
1,524 to 2,437 m:60
914 to 1,523 m:70
under 914 m:125 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:221
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m:35
under 914 m:
185 (2013)


Heliports
23 (2013)


Pipelines
condensate 37 km; gas 26,985 km; oil 2,826 km; refined products 4,479 km; water 8 km (2013)


Railways
total:41,981 kmcountry comparison to the world: 6
standard gauge:41,722 km 1.435-m gauge (20,053 km electrified)
narrow gauge:220 km 1.000-m gauge (75 km electrified); 39 km 0.750-m gauge (24 km electrified) (2008)


Roadways
total:645,000 kmcountry comparison to the world: 11
paved:645,000 km (includes 12,800 km of expressways)
note:includes local roads (2010)


    Waterways
7,467 km (Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 19


Merchant marine
total:427country comparison to the world: 24
by type:barge carrier 2, bulk carrier 6, cargo 51, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, container 298, liquefied gas 6, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 24, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 3, roll on/roll off 6, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned:6 (Finland 3, Netherlands 1, Switzerland 2)
registered in other countries:3,420 (Antigua and Barbuda 1094, Australia 2, Bahamas 30, Bermuda 14, Brazil 6, Bulgaria 12, Burma 1, Cayman Islands 3, Cook Islands 1, Curacao 25, Cyprus 192, Denmark 9, Dominica 5, Estonia 1, France 1, Gibraltar 123, Hong Kong 10, Isle of Man 56, Jamaica 10, Liberia 1185, Luxembourg 9, Malta 135, Marshall Islands 248, Morocco 1, Netherlands 86, NZ 2, Panama 24, Papua New Guinea 1, Philippines 2, Portugal 14, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Singapore 32, Slovakia 3, Spain 4, Sri Lanka 8, Sweden 3, UK 59, US 5, Venezuela 1) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Baltic Sea - Rostock; North Sea - Wilhelmshaven
river port(s):Bremen (Weser); Bremerhaven (Geeste); Duisburg, Karlsruhe, Neuss-Dusseldorf (Rhine); Brunsbuttel, Hamburg (Elbe); Lubeck (Wakenitz)
oil/gas terminal(s):Brunsbuttel Canal terminals
container port(s):Bremen/Bremerhaven (5,915,487), Hamburg (9,014,165)(2011)


Military


Military branches
Federal Armed Forces (Bundeswehr): Army (Heer); Navy (Deutsche Marine, includes naval air arm); Air Force (Luftwaffe); Joint Support Services (Streitkraeftebasis, SKB); Central Medical Service (Zentraler Sanitaetsdienst, ZSanDstBw) (2013)


Military service age and obligation
17-23 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; conscription ended 1 July 2011; service obligation 8-23 months or 12 years; women have been eligible for voluntary service in all military branches and positions since 2001 (2013)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:18,529,299
females age 16-49:17,888,543 (2010 est.)


Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:15,027,886
females age 16-49:14,510,527 (2010 est.)


    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:405,438
female:384,930 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
1.35% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 77
1.34% of GDP (2011)
1.35% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
none


Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):40,230 (Iraq); 24,449 (Turkey); 24,203 (Afghanistan); 21,253 (Syria); 17,150 (Iran); 8,410 (Serbia) (2013)
stateless persons:5,683 (2012)



    Illicit drugs
source of precursor chemicals for South American cocaine processors; transshipment point for and consumer of Southwest Asian heroin, Latin American cocaine, and European-produced synthetic drugs; major financial center

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in Germany 2017


           
 

 
Germany

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
17
79.87
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
114
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
53
 
  DTF
83.42
 
  DTF
60.00
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
9.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Time - Men (number)
10.5
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Cost - Men (days)
1.9
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
9.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
10.5
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
1.9
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
7.0
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
32.9
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
8.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
12
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
7.0
 
  DTF
81.45
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
8.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
48
 
  Time (days)
96.0
 
  DTF
82.10
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
1.1
 
  Payments (number per year)
9.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
9.5
 
  Time (hours per year)
218.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
48.9
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
23.2
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
21.3
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
4.4
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
0.5
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
97.5
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
3.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
38
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
5
 
  DTF
91.77
 
  DTF
98.79
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
36
 
  Procedures (number)
3.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
345
 
  Time (days)
28.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
1
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
40.8
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
45
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
0
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
3.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
0
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
1
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
1.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
0
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
17
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
1.0
 
  DTF
73.17
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
26.6
 
  Time (days)
499.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
14.4
 
  Registering Property (rank)
79
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
12.0
 
  DTF
65.72
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
6.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
3
 
  Time (days)
52.0
 
  DTF
92.28
 
  Cost (% of property value)
6.7
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
84.4
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
22.0
 
  Time (years)
1.2
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
7.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
8.0
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
2.0
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
1
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
15.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
5.0
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
0.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
6.0
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
32
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
3.0
 
  DTF
70.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
6.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
8.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
1.9
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
100.0
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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