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India Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and Pakistan


Geographic coordinates:
20 00 N, 77 00 E


Map references:
Asia


Area:
total:3,287,263 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 7
land:2,973,193 sq km
water:314,070 sq km


Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>


Land boundaries:
total:13,888 km
border countries:Bangladesh 4,142 km, Bhutan 659 km, Burma 1,468 km, China 2,659 km, Nepal 1,770 km, Pakistan 3,190 km


Coastline:
7,000 km


Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin


Climate:
varies from tropical monsoon in south to temperate in north


Terrain:
upland plain (Deccan Plateau) in south, flat to rolling plain along the Ganges, deserts in west, Himalayas in north


    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point:Kanchenjunga 8,598 m


Natural resources:
coal (fourth-largest reserves in the world), iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite, rare earth elements, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, diamonds, petroleum, limestone, arable land


Land use:
arable land:47.87%
permanent crops:3.74%
other:48.39% (2011)


Irrigated land:
663,340 sq km (2008)


Total renewable water resources:
1,911 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
1,911 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
droughts; flash floods, as well as widespread and destructive flooding from monsoonal rains; severe thunderstorms; earthquakes


Environment - current issues:
deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; desertification; air pollution from industrial effluents and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage and runoff of agricultural pesticides; tap water is not potable throughout the country; huge and growing population is overstraining natural resources


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements


Geography - note:
dominates South Asian subcontinent; near important Indian Ocean trade routes; Kanchenjunga, third tallest mountain in the world, lies on the border with Nepal



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Indian(s)
adjective:Indian


Ethnic groups:
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3% (2000)


Languages:
Hindi 41%, Bengali 8.1%, Telugu 7.2%, Marathi 7%, Tamil 5.9%, Urdu 5%, Gujarati 4.5%, Kannada 3.7%, Malayalam 3.2%, Oriya 3.2%, Punjabi 2.8%, Assamese 1.3%, Maithili 1.2%, other 5.9%


Religions:
Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1% (2001 census)


Population:
1,236,344,631 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 2


Age structure:
0-14 years:28.5% (male 187,016,401/female 165,048,695)
15-24 years:18.1% (male 118,696,540/female 105,342,764)
25-54 years:40.6% (male 258,202,535/female 243,293,143)
55-64 years:7% (male 43,625,668/female 43,175,111)
65 years and over:5.7% (male 34,133,175/female 37,810,599) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:51.8 %
youth dependency ratio:43.6 %
elderly dependency ratio:8.1 %
potential support ratio:12.3 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:27 years
male:26.4 years
female:27.7 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
1.25% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 94


Birth rate:
19.89 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 86


Death rate:
7.35 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 118


Net migration rate:
-0.05 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 112


Urbanization:
urban population:31.3% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:2.47% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
NEW DELHI (capital) 22.654 million; Mumbai 19.744 million; Kolkata 14.402 million; Chennai 8.784 million; Bangalore 8.614 million; Hyderabad 7.837 million (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.12 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.13 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.13 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years:1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.91 male(s)/female
total population:1.08 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
19.9 (2005-06 est.)


Maternal mortality rate:
200 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:43.19 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 50
male:41.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female:44.63 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:67.8 yearscountry comparison to the world: 163
male:66.68 years
female:69.06 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
2.51 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 81


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
54.8% (2007/08)


Health expenditures:
3.9% of GDP (2011)


Physicians density:
0.65 physicians/1,000 population (2009)


Hospital bed density:
0.9 beds/1,000 population (2005)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 90.7% of population
total: 92.6% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 9.3% of population
total: 7.4% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 60.2% of population
rural: 24.7% of population
total: 36% of population
unimproved:
urban: 39.8% of population
rural: 75.3% of population
total: 64% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.3% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 101


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
2.085 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 3


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
135,500 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 3


Major infectious diseases:


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
1.9% (2008)country comparison to the world: 184


Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
43.5% (2006)country comparison to the world: 2


Education expenditures:
3.2% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 134

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:62.8%
male:75.2%
female:50.8% (2006 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:12 years
male:12 years
female:11 years (2011)


Child labor - children ages 5-14:



Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:10.7%country comparison to the world: 107
male:10.4%
female:11.6% (2012)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of India
conventional short form:India
local long form:Republic of India/Bharatiya Ganarajya
local short form:India/Bharat


Government type:
federal republic


Capital:
name:New Delhi
geographic coordinates:28 36 N, 77 12 E
time difference:UTC+5.5 (10.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)


Administrative divisions:
29 states and 7 union territories*; Andaman and Nicobar Islands*, Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh*, Chhattisgarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli*, Daman and Diu*, Delhi*, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep*, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Odisha, Puducherry*, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, West Bengal


Independence:
15 August 1947 (from the UK)


National holiday:
Republic Day, 26 January (1950)


Constitution:
previous 1935 (preindependence); latest draft completed 4 November 1949, adopted 26 November 1949, effective 26 January 1950; amended many times, last in 2013 (2013)


Legal system:
common law system based on the English model; separate personal law codes apply to Muslims, Christians, and Hindus; judicial review of legislative acts


International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; non-party state to the ICCt


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal


Executive branch:
chief of state:President Pranab MUKHERJEE (since 22 July 2012); Vice President Mohammad Hamid ANSARI (since 11 August 2007)
head of government:Prime Minister Narendra MODI (since 26 May 2014)
cabinet:Union Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections:president elected by an electoral college consisting of elected members of both houses of Parliament and the legislatures of the states for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held in July 2012 (next to be held in July 2017); vice president elected by both houses of Parliament for a five-year term; election last held in August 2012 (next to be held in August 2017); prime minister chosen by parliamentary members of the majority party following legislative elections
election results:Pranab MUKHERJEE elected president; percent of vote - Pranab MUKHERJEE 69.31%, Purno SANGMA - 30.69%


Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Sansad consists of the Council of States or Rajya Sabha (a body consisting of 245 seats up to 12 of which are appointed by the president, the remainder chosen in staggered elections by the elected members of the state and territorial assemblies; members serve six-year terms) and the People's Assembly or Lok Sabha (545 seats; 543 members elected by popular vote, 2 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms)
elections:People's Assembly - last held April-May 2014 in 9 phases; (next election must be held by May 2019)
election results:People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA, ; seats by party - BJP 282, INC 44, AIADMK 37, AITC 34, BJD 20, SS 18, TDP 16, TRS 11, CPI(M) 9, YSRC 9, LJP 6, NCP 6, SP 5, AAP 4, RJD 4, SAD 4, independents 3, other 31


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court (the chief justice and 25 associate justices); note - parliament approved an additional 5 judges in 2008
note - in mid-2011 India’s Cabinet approved the program, National Mission for Justice Delivery and Legal Reform, to eliminate judicial corruption and reduce the backlog of cases
judge selection and term of office:justices appointed by the president to serve until age 65
subordinate courts:High Courts; District Courts; Labour Court


Political parties and leaders:
Aam Aadmi Party or AAP [Arvind KEJRIWAL]
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or AIADMK [J. JAYALALITHAA]
All India Trinamool Congress or AITC [Mamata BANERJEE]
Bahujan Samaj Party or BSP [MAYAWATI]
Bharatiya Janata Party or BJP [Rajnath SINGH]
Biju Janata Dal or BJD [Naveen PATNAIK]
Communist Party of India or CPI [Suravaram Sudhakar REDDY, Secretary-General]
Communist Party of India-Marxist or CPI(M) [Prakash KARAT]
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam or DMK [M.KARUNANIDHI]
Indian National Congress or INC [Sonia GANDHI]
Janata Dal (United) or JD(U) [Sharad YADAV]
Lok Janshakti Party (LJP) [Ram Vilas PASWAN]
Nationalist Congress Party or NCP [Sharad PAWAR]
Rashtriya Janata Dal or RJD [Lalu Prasad YADAV]
Rashtriya Lok Dal or RLD [Ajit SINGH]
Samajwadi Party or SP [Mulayam Singh YADAV]
Shiromani Akali Dal or SAD [Parkash Singh BADAL]
Shiv Sena or SS [Uddhav THACKERAY]
Telugu Desam Party or TDP [Chandrababu NAIDU]
Telegana Rashtra Samithi (TRS) [K. Chandrashekar RAO]
YSR Congress(YSRC) [Jaganmohan REDDY]
note:India has dozens of national and regional political parties


    Political pressure groups and leaders:
All Parties Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group)


International organization participation:
ABEDA, ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIMSTEC, BIS, BRICS, C, CD, CERN (observer), CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-15, G-20, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC, SACEP, SCO (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (temporary), UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Subrahmanyam JAISHANKAR (since 10 March 2014)
chancery:2107 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008; note - Consular Wing located at 2536 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 939-7000
FAX:[1] (202) 265-4351
consulate(s) general:Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, New York, San Francisco


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Nancy J. POWELL (since 19 April 2012)
embassy:Shantipath, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110021
mailing address:use embassy street address
telephone:[91] (11) 2419-8000
FAX:[91] (11) 2419-0017
consulate(s) general:Chennai (Madras), Hyderabad; Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay)


Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of saffron (subdued orange) (top), white, and green, with a blue chakra (24-spoked wheel) centered in the white band; saffron represents courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; white signifies purity and truth; green stands for faith and fertility; the blue chakra symbolizes the wheel of life in movement and death in stagnation


National symbol(s):
the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which depicts four Asiatic lions standing back to back mounted on a circular abacus, is the official emblem; the Bengal tiger is the national animal; the lotus is the national flower


National anthem:
name:'Jana-Gana-Mana' (Thou Art the Ruler of the Minds of All People)

lyrics/music:Rabindranath TAGORE
note:adopted 1950; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote Bangladesh's national anthem


Economy


Economy - overview:
India is developing into an open-market economy, yet traces of its past autarkic policies remain. Economic liberalization measures, including industrial deregulation, privatization of state-owned enterprises, and reduced controls on foreign trade and investment, began in the early 1990s and served to accelerate the country's growth, which averaged under 7% per year from 1997 to 2011. India's diverse economy encompasses traditional village farming, modern agriculture, handicrafts, a wide range of modern industries, and a multitude of services. Slightly less than half of the work force is in agriculture, but, services are the major source of economic growth, accounting for nearly two-thirds of India's output with less than one-third of its labor force. India has capitalized on its large educated English-speaking population to become a major exporter of information technology services, business outsourcing services, and software workers. India's economic growth began slowing in 2011 because of a decline in investment, caused by high interest rates, rising inflation, and investor pessimism about the government's commitment to further economic reforms and about the global situation. In late 2012, the Indian Government announced additional reforms and deficit reduction measures, including allowing higher levels of foreign participation in direct investment in the economy. The outlook for India's long-term growth is moderately positive due to a young population and corresponding low dependency ratio, healthy savings and investment rates, and increasing integration into the global economy. However, India has many challenges that it has yet to fully address, including poverty, corruption, violence and discrimination against women and girls, an inefficient power generation and distribution system, ineffective enforcement of intellectual property rights, decades-long civil litigation dockets, inadequate transport and agricultural infrastructure, limited non-agricultural employment opportunities, high spending and poorly-targeted subsidies, inadequate availability of quality basic and higher education, and accommodating rural-to-urban migration. Growth in 2013 fell to a decade low, as India's economic leaders struggled to improve the country's wide fiscal and current account deficits. Rising macroeconomic imbalances in India and improving economic conditions in Western countries, led investors to shift capital away from India, prompting a sharp depreciation of the rupee. However, investors' perceptions of India improved in early 2014, due to a reduction of the current account deficit and expectations of post-election economic reform, resulting in a surge of inbound capital flows and stabilization of the rupee.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$4.99 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4
$4.833 trillion (2012 est.)
$4.63 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.67 trillion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
3.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108
5.1% (2012 est.)
7.5% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$4,000 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169
$3,900 (2012 est.)
$3,800 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
33.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
28.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
30.3% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:56.4%
government consumption:12.4%
investment in fixed capital:29.6%
investment in inventories:8.2%
exports of goods and services:25.2%
imports of goods and services:-31.8%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:17.4%
industry:25.8%
services:56.9% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
rice, wheat, oilseed, cotton, jute, tea, sugarcane, lentils, onions, potatoes; dairy products, sheep, goats, poultry; fish


Industries:
textiles, chemicals, food processing, steel, transportation equipment, cement, mining, petroleum, machinery, software, pharmaceuticals


Industrial production growth rate:
0.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 152

Labor force:
487.3 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:49%
industry:20%
services:31% (2012 est.)


Unemployment rate:
8.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98
8.5% (2012 est.)


Population below poverty line:
29.8% (2010 est.)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:3.6%
highest 10%:31.1% (2005)


    Distribution of family income - Gini index:
36.8 (2004)
country comparison to the world: 80
37.8 (1997)


Budget:
revenues:$181.3 billion
expenditures:$281.6 billion (2013 est.)


Taxes and other revenues:
10.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175


Public debt:
51.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
51.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:data cover central government debt, and exclude debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data exclude debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions


Fiscal year:
1 April - 31 March


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
9.6% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
9.7% (2012 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
7.75% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
8% (31 December 2010 est.)
note:this is the Indian central bank's policy rate - the repurchase rate


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
10.6% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
10.63% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$303.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16
$317.4 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of broad money:
$1.376 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$1.396 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$1.379 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
$1.401 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$1.263 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Current account balance:
-$74.79 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190
-$91.47 billion (2012 est.)


Exports:
$313.2 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 19
$296.8 billion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
petroleum products, precious stones, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, vehicles, apparel


Exports - partners:
UAE 12.3%, US 12.2%, China 5%, Singapore 4.9%, Hong Kong 4.1% (2012)


Imports:
$467.5 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
$488.9 billion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
crude oil, precious stones, machinery, fertilizer, iron and steel, chemicals


Imports - partners:
China 10.7%, UAE 7.8%, Saudi Arabia 6.8%, Switzerland 6.2%, US 5.1% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$295 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11
$296 billion (28 December 2012 est.)


Debt - external:
$412.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$378.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$310 billion (30 November 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
$225.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$120.1 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
$118.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
Indian rupees (INR) per US dollar -
58.68 (2013 est.)
53.437 (2012 est.)
45.726 (2010 est.)
48.405 (2009)
43.319 (2008)


Energy


Electricity - production:
871 billion kWh (FY11/12 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6


Electricity - consumption:
698.8 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6


Electricity - exports:
62 million kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81


Electricity - imports:
5.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
199.9 million kW (31 March 2012 est)
country comparison to the world: 6


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
65.8% of total installed capacity (31 March 2012 est)
country comparison to the world: 118


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
2.4% of total installed capacity (31 March 2012 est)
country comparison to the world: 25


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
19.5% of total installed capacity (31 March 2012 est)
country comparison to the world: 91


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
12.3% of total installed capacity (31 March 2012 est)
country comparison to the world: 21


Crude oil - production:
990,200 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 21


Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130


Crude oil - imports:
3.272 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 4


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
5.476 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23


Refined petroleum products - production:
4.216 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
3.292 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5


Refined petroleum products - exports:
1.247 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 6


Refined petroleum products - imports:
379,600 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16


Natural gas - production:
40.38 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22


Natural gas - consumption:
64.49 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11


Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119


Natural gas - imports:
16.39 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23


Natural gas - proved reserves:
1.241 trillion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
1.726 billion Mt (2011 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
31.08 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 10


Telephones - mobile cellular:
893.862 million (2013)
country comparison to the world: 2


Telephone system:
general assessment:supported by recent deregulation and liberalization of telecommunications laws and policies, India has emerged as one of the fastest growing telecom markets in the world; total telephone subscribership base exceeded 900 million in 2011, an overall teledensity of roughly 75%, and subscribership is currently growing more than 20 million per month; urban teledensity now exceeds 100% and rural teledensity is steadily growing
domestic:mobile cellular service introduced in 1994 and organized nationwide into four metropolitan areas and 19 telecom circles each with multiple private service providers and one or more state-owned service providers; in recent years significant trunk capacity added in the form of fiber-optic cable and one of the world's largest domestic satellite systems, the Indian National Satellite system (INSAT), with 6 satellites supporting 33,000 very small aperture terminals (VSAT)
international:country code - 91; a number of major international submarine cable systems, including Sea-Me-We-3 with landing sites at Cochin and Mumbai (Bombay), Sea-Me-We-4 with a landing site at Chennai, Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG) with a landing site at Mumbai (Bombay), South Africa - Far East (SAFE) with a landing site at Cochin, the i2i cable network linking to Singapore with landing sites at Mumbai (Bombay) and Chennai (Madras), and Tata Indicom linking Singapore and Chennai (Madras), provide a significant increase in the bandwidth available for both voice and data traffic; satellite earth stations - 8 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean region); 9 gateway exchanges operating from Mumbai (Bombay), New Delhi, Kolkata (Calcutta), Chennai (Madras), Jalandhar, Kanpur, Gandhinagar, Hyderabad, and Ernakulam (2011)



    Broadcast media:
Doordarshan, India's public TV network, operates about 20 national, regional, and local services; a large and increasing number of privately owned TV stations are distributed by cable and satellite service providers; by 2011, more than 100 million homes had access to cable and satellite TV offering more than 700 TV channels; government controls AM radio with All India Radio operating domestic and external networks; news broadcasts via radio are limited to the All India Radio Network; since 2000, privately-owned FM stations have been permitted and their numbers have increased rapidly (2007)


Internet country code:
.in


Internet hosts:
6.746 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 17


Internet users:
61.338 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 6



Transportation


Airports
346 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 21


Airports - with paved runways
total:253
over 3,047 m:22
2,438 to 3,047 m:59
1,524 to 2,437 m:76
914 to 1,523 m:82
under 914 m:14 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:93
over 3,047 m:1
2,438 to 3,047 m:3
1,524 to 2,437 m:6
914 to 1,523 m:38
under 914 m:
45 (2013)


Heliports
45 (2013)


Pipelines
condensate/gas 9 km; gas 13,581 km; liquid petroleum gas 2,054 km; oil 8,943 km; oil/gas/water 20 km; refined products 11,069 km (2013)


Railways
total:63,974 kmcountry comparison to the world: 4
broad gauge:54,257 km 1.676-m gauge (18,927 km electrified)
narrow gauge:7,180 km 1.000-m gauge; 2,537 km 0.762-m gauge and 0.610-m gauge (2009)


    Roadways
total:4,689,842 kmcountry comparison to the world: 2
note:includes 79,116 km of national highways and expressways, 155,716 km of state highways, and 4,455,010 km of other roads (2013)


Waterways
14,500 km (5,200 km on major rivers and 485 km on canals suitable for mechanized vessels) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 9


Merchant marine
total:340country comparison to the world: 29
by type:bulk carrier 104, cargo 78, chemical tanker 22, container 14, liquefied gas 11, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 15, petroleum tanker 92
foreign-owned:10 (China 1, Hong Kong 2, Jersey 2, Malaysia 1, UAE 4)
registered in other countries:76 (Cyprus 4, Dominica 2, Liberia 8, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 10, Nigeria 1, Panama 24, Saint Kitts and Nevis 2, Singapore 21, unknown 1) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Chennai, Jawaharal Nehru Port, Kandla, Kolkata (Calcutta), Mumbai (Bombay), Sikka, Vishakhapatnam
container port(s) (TEUs):Chennai (1,558,343), Jawaharal Nehru Port (4,307,622)


Military


Military branches
Army; Navy (includes naval air arm); Air Force; Coast Guard (2011)


Military service age and obligation
16-18 years of age for voluntary military service (Army 17 1/2, Air Force 17, Navy 16 1/2); no conscription; women may join as officers, but for noncombat roles only (2012)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:319,129,420
females age 16-49:296,071,637 (2010 est.)


Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:249,531,562
females age 16-49:240,039,958 (2010 est.)


    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:12,151,065
female:10,745,891 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
2.43% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 31
2.58% of GDP (2011)
2.43% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
since China and India launched a security and foreign policy dialogue in 2005, consolidated discussions related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, Indian claims that China transferred missiles to Pakistan, and other matters continue; Kashmir remains the site of the world's largest and most militarized territorial dispute with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India and Pakistan resumed bilateral dialogue in February 2011 after a two-year hiatus, have maintained the 2003 cease-fire in Kashmir, and continue to have disputes over water sharing of the Indus River and its tributaries; UN Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan has maintained a small group of peacekeepers since 1949; India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; to defuse tensions and prepare for discussions on a maritime boundary, India and Pakistan seek technical resolution of the disputed boundary in Sir Creek estuary at the mouth of the Rann of Kutch in the Arabian Sea; Pakistani maps continue to show its Junagadh claim in Indian Gujarat State; Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Joint Border Committee with Nepal continues to examine contested boundary sections, including the 400 sq km dispute over the source of the Kalapani River; India maintains a strict border regime to keep out Maoist insurgents and control illegal cross-border activities from Nepal


    Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):100,003 (Tibet/China); 65,674 (Sri Lanka); 11,122 (Burma); 10,328 (Afghanistan) (2013)
IDPs:at least 531,000 (about 250,000 are Kashmiri Pandits from Jammu and Kashmir) (2014)



Illicit drugs
world's largest producer of licit opium for the pharmaceutical trade, but an undetermined quantity of opium is diverted to illicit international drug markets; transit point for illicit narcotics produced in neighboring countries and throughout Southwest Asia; illicit producer of methaqualone; vulnerable to narcotics money laundering through the hawala system; licit ketamine and precursor production

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in India 2017


           
 

 
India

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
130
55.27
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
155
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
7.0
 
  DTF
74.31
 
  DTF
6.0
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
12.9
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
7.0
 
  Time - Men (number)
26.0
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
8.0
 
  Cost - Men (days)
13.8
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
10.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
12.9
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
8.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
26.0
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
13.8
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
172
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
0.0
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
46.58
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
25.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
185
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
241.0
 
  DTF
32.83
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
35.1
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
60.6
 
  Time (days)
190.0
 
  DTF
4.3
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
25.9
 
  Payments (number per year)
143
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
11.5
 
  Time (hours per year)
57.61
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
0.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
106
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
0.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
413
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
0.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
38
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
0.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
92
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
0.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
283
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
0.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
574
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
26
 
  DTF
61
 
  DTF
85.09
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
135
 
  Procedures (number)
5.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
172
 
  Time (days)
45.9
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
35.19
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
133.2
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
1420.0
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
7.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
39.6
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
2.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
9.0
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
136
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
0.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
32.75
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
0.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
26.0
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
0.0
 
  DTF
4.3
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
25.5
 
  Time (days)
9.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
6.0
 
  Registering Property (rank)
138
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)

 
  DTF
50.00
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
7.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)

 
  Time (days)
46.8
 
  DTF

 
  Cost (% of property value)
7.7
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)

 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
7.0
 
  Time (years)

 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
0.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)

 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
44
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)

 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
65.00
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)

 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
6.0
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)

 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
7.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)

 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)

 
  Getting Credit (rank)
0.0
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)

 
  DTF
21.4
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
13
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
73.33
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
7.3
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
6.7
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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