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Romania Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine


Geographic coordinates:
46 00 N, 25 00 E


Map references:
Europe


Area:
total:238,391 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 83
land:229,891 sq km
water:8,500 sq km


Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than Oregon


Land boundaries:
total:2,508 km
border countries:Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km


Coastline:
225 km


Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


Climate:
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms


Terrain:
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Moldavian Plateau on the east by the Eastern Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps


    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Black Sea 0 m
highest point:Moldoveanu 2,544 m


Natural resources:
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower


Land use:
arable land:37.73%
permanent crops:1.86%
other:60.41% (2011)


Irrigated land:
6,153 sq km (2007)


Total renewable water resources:
211.9 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
211.9 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides


Environment - current issues:
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements


Geography - note:
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective:Romanian


Ethnic groups:
Romanian 83.4%, Hungarian 6.1%, Roma 3.1%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.2%, other 0.7%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)


Languages:
Romanian (official) 85.4%, Hungarian 6.3%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.2%, other 1%, unspecified 6.1% (2011 est.)


Religions:
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 81.9%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformed and Pentecostal) 6.4%, Roman Catholic 4.3%, other (includes Muslim) 0.9%, none or atheist 0.2%, unspecified 6.3% (2011 est.)


Population:
21,729,871 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 58


Age structure:
0-14 years:14.6% (male 1,628,220/female 1,541,914)
15-24 years:11.3% (male 1,258,746/female 1,197,681)
25-54 years:45.7% (male 5,021,370/female 4,916,576)
55-64 years:13% (male 1,320,781/female 1,508,878)
65 years and over:15.1% (male 1,346,864/female 1,988,841) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:43.6 %
youth dependency ratio:21.7 %
elderly dependency ratio:21.9 %
potential support ratio:4.6 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:39.8 years
male:38.4 years
female:41.4 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
-0.29% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 216


Birth rate:
9.27 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 206


Death rate:
11.88 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 28


Net migration rate:
-0.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 123


Urbanization:
urban population:52.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:-0.18% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
BUCHAREST (capital) 1.937 million (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.68 male(s)/female
total population:0.95 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
26 (2011 est.)


Maternal mortality rate:
27 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:10.16 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 140
male:11.52 deaths/1,000 live births
female:8.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:74.69 yearscountry comparison to the world: 108
male:71.23 years
female:78.36 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
1.32 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 214


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
69.8%


Health expenditures:
5.9% of GDP (2010)


Physicians density:
2.39 physicians/1,000 population (2010)


Hospital bed density:
6.3 beds/1,000 population (2010)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 98.5% of population
rural: 75.6% of population
total: 87.7% of population
unimproved:
urban: 1.5% of population
rural: 24.4% of population
total: 12.3% of population (2008 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 87.9% of population
rural: 54.4% of population
total: 72.1% of population
unimproved:
urban: 12.1% of population
rural: 45.6% of population
total: 27.9% of population (2008 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 122


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
16,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 88


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
fewer than 1,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 76


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
19.1% (2008)country comparison to the world: 101


Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
3.5% (2002)country comparison to the world: 103


Education expenditures:
4.2% of GDP (2009)country comparison to the world: 104

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:97.7%
male:98.3%
female:97.1% (2011 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:14 years
male:14 years
female:15 years (2011)


Child labor - children ages 5-14:



Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:22.7%country comparison to the world: 49
male:22.3%
female:23.2% (2012)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form:Romania
local long form:none
local short form:Romania


Government type:
republic


Capital:
name:Bucharest
geographic coordinates:44 26 N, 26 06 E
time difference:UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October


Administrative divisions:
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti (Bucharest)*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dambovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Valcea, Vrancea


Independence:
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin); 26 March 1881 (kingdom proclaimed); 30 December 1947 (republic proclaimed)


National holiday:
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)


Constitution:
several previous; latest adopted 21 November 1991, approved by referendum and effective 8 December 1991; amended 2003 (2014)


Legal system:
civil law system


International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal


Executive branch:
chief of state:President Traian BASESCU (since 20 December 2004); note - President BASESCU has twice been temporarily suspended since assuming his post: first from 20 April-23 May 2007, second from 6 July-27 August 2012; he survived two national recall referendums
head of government:Prime Minister Victor-Viorel PONTA (since 7 May 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Daniel CONSTANTIN, Hunor KELEMAN, Gabriel OPREA (since 5 March 2014)
cabinet:Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections:president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 November 2009 with runoff on 6 December 2009 (next to be held in November-December 2014); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the Parliament
election results:Traian BASESCU reelected president; percent of vote - Traian BASESCU 50.3%, Mircea GEOANA 49.7%


Legislative branch:
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (176 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camera Deputatilor (412 seats; members elected by popular vote in a mixed electoral system to serve four-year terms)
elections:Senate - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 9 December 2012 (next by December 2016)
election results:Senate - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 60.1%, ARD 16.7%, PP-DD 14.6%, UDMR 5.3%, other 3.3%; seats by alliance/party - USL 122, ARD 24, PP-DD 21, UDMR 9; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by alliance/party - USL 58.6%, ARD 16.5%, PP-DD 14%, UDMR 5.2%, ethnic minorities 2.6%, other 3.1%; seats by alliance/party - USL 273, ARD 56, PP-DD 47, UDMR 18, ethnic minorities 18


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):High Court of Cassation and Justice (consists of 111 judges and organized into civil, penal, commercial, contentious administrative and fiscal business, and joint sections); Supreme Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members)
judge selection and term of office:High Court of Cassation and Justice judges appointed by the president upon nomination by the Superior Council of Magistracy, a 19-member body mostly of judges, prosecutors, and law specialists; judges appointed for 6-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court members - 6 elected by Parliament and 3 appointed by the president; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms
subordinate courts:Courts of Appeal; regional tribunals; first instance courts; military and arbitration courts


    Political parties and leaders:
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Force or FC [Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU]
Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR)
Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Vasile BLAGA] (formerly Democratic Party)
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU]
National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]
New Republic Party or NR [Mihai NEAMTU]
People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Dan DIACONESCU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugene TOMAC]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor-Viorel PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)


Political pressure groups and leaders:
Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party or PNT-CD [Aurelian PAVELESCU]
Civic Force or FC [Mihai-Razvan UNGUREANU]
Conservative Party or PC [Daniel CONSTANTIN] (formerly Humanist Party or PUR)
Democratic Liberal Party or PDL [Vasile BLAGA] (formerly Democratic Party)
Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Hunor KELEMEN]
National Liberal Party or PNL [Crin ANTONESCU]
National Union for Romania's Progress or UNPR [Gabriel OPREA]
New Republic Party or NR [Mihai NEAMTU]
People's Party - Dan Diaconescu or PP-DD [Dan DIACONESCU]
Popular Movement Party or PMP [Eugene TOMAC]
Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor-Viorel PONTA] (formerly Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR)



International organization participation:
Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, ESA, EU, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MONUSCO, NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Iulian BUGA (since 3 December 2013)
chancery:1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone:[1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851, 4852
FAX:[1] (202) 232-4748
consulate(s) general:Chicago, Los Angeles, New York


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Duane BUTCHER (since 14 December 2012)
embassy:Bulevardul Dr. Liviu Librescu 4-6, District 1, Bucharest, 015118
mailing address:American Embassy Bucharest, US Department of State, 5260 Bucharest Place, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone:[40] (21) 200-3300
FAX:[40] (21) 200-3442


Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; modeled after the flag of France, the colors are those of the principalities of Walachia (red and yellow) and Moldavia (red and blue), which united in 1862 to form Romania; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed


National symbol(s):
golden eagle


National anthem:
name:'Desteapta-te romane!' (Wake up, Romanian!)

lyrics/music:Andrei MURESIANU/Anton PANN
note:adopted 1990; the anthem was written during the 1848 Revolution


Economy


Economy - overview:
Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession due to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment fueled strong GDP growth, but led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. As a result of the global financial crisis, Romania signed on to a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders. GDP contracted from 2009 to 2011. In March 2011, Romania and the IMF/EU/World Bank signed a 24-month precautionary stand-by agreement, worth $6.6 billion, to promote fiscal discipline, encourage progress on structural reforms, and strengthen financial sector stability. In September 2013, the Romanian authorities and the IMF/EU agreed to a follow-on stand-by agreement, worth $5.4 billion, to continue with reforms, although Bucharest announced that it does not intend to draw funds under the agreement. Economic growth accelerated in 2013, driven by strong industrial exports and an excellent agricultural harvest; in December 2013 inflation dropped to a historical low annual rate of 1.6%; and the current account deficit was reduced substantially. Yet, progress on structural reforms is uneven and the economy still is vulnerable to shocks.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$288.5 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
$278.7 billion (2012 est.)
$277 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$188.9 billion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
3.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
0.6% (2012 est.)
2.3% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$14,400 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94
$13,700 (2012 est.)
$13,600 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
24.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 55
23.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
22.4% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:71.4%
government consumption:6.2%
investment in fixed capital:23.6%
investment in inventories:-0.7%
exports of goods and services:42.2%
imports of goods and services:42.7%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:6.4%
industry:34.2%
services:59.4% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
wheat, corn, barley, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep


Industries:
electric machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, light machinery, auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining


Industrial production growth rate:
8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26

Labor force:
9.451 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:29%
industry:28.6%
services:42.4% (2012)


Unemployment rate:
7.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
6.5% (2012 est.)


Population below poverty line:
22.2% (2011 est.)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:14.1%
highest 10%:7.5% (2012 est.)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:
27.4 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 127
24.2 (2010)


    Budget:
revenues:$60.11 billion
expenditures:$64.85 billion (2013 est.)


Taxes and other revenues:
31.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-2.5% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106


Public debt:
38.6% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
37.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:defined by the EU's Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year in the following categories of government liabilities: currency and deposits, securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives, and loans; general government sector comprises the subsectors: central government, state government, local government, and social security funds


Fiscal year:
calendar year


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
3.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
3.4% (2012 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
4% (31 December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 66
5.25% (31 December 2012)


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
NA% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 70
11.49% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$30.82 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59
$26.51 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of broad money:
$74.21 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 61
$66.13 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$91.77 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54
$90.75 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$43.67 billion (31 December 2013 est.)


Current account balance:
-$1.986 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
-$7.48 billion (2012 est.)


Exports:
$65.84 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 52
$57.86 billion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels


Exports - partners:
Germany 18.9%, Italy 12.3%, France 7.1%, Turkey 5.5%, Hungary 5.5% (2012)


Imports:
$73.42 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$70.17 billion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels and minerals, metals, textile and products, agricultural products


Imports - partners:
Germany 17.5%, Italy 11%, Hungary 9.1%, France 5.7%, Russia 4.4%, Poland 4.3%, Austria 4.2%, Kazakhstan 4.1% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$48.78 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41
$46.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Debt - external:
$131.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
$131.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$84.04 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$78.05 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$1.455 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 75
$1.298 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
lei (RON) per US dollar -
3.41 (2013 est.)
3.4682 (2012 est.)
3.1779 (2010 est.)
3.0493 (2009)
2.5 (2008)


Energy


Electricity - production:
56.71 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46


Electricity - consumption:
52.36 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 46


Electricity - exports:
1.15 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56


Electricity - imports:
1.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 59


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
21.77 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
55.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
6.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 22


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
30.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
8.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29


Crude oil - production:
101,600 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51


Crude oil - exports:
1,604 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 69


Crude oil - imports:
122,000 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
600 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47


Refined petroleum products - production:
218,700 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
218,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 54


Refined petroleum products - exports:
75,480 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51


Refined petroleum products - imports:
44,070 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74


Natural gas - production:
10.63 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41


Natural gas - consumption:
13.48 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 41


Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 170


Natural gas - imports:
2.85 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 43


Natural gas - proved reserves:
105.5 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 53


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
86.19 million Mt (2011 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
4.68 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 32


Telephones - mobile cellular:
22.7 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 45


Telephone system:
general assessment:the telecommunications sector is being expanded and modernized; domestic and international service improving rapidly, especially mobile-cellular services
domestic:more than 90 percent of telephone network is automatic; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 20 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 110 telephones per 100 persons
international:country code - 40; the Black Sea Fiber Optic System provides connectivity to Bulgaria and Turkey; satellite earth stations - 10; digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest (2011)



    Broadcast media:
a mixture of public and private TV stations; the public broadcaster operates multiple stations; roughly 100 private national, regional, and local stations; more than 75% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV systems that provide access to Romanian, European, and international stations; state-owned public radio broadcaster operates 4 national networks and regional and local stations; more than 100 private radio stations (2008)


Internet country code:
.ro


Internet hosts:
2.667 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 35


Internet users:
7.787 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 37



Transportation


Airports
45 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 97


Airports - with paved runways
total:26
over 3,047 m:4
2,438 to 3,047 m:10
1,524 to 2,437 m:11
under 914 m:1 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:19
914 to 1,523 m:5
under 914 m:
14 (2013)


Heliports
2 (2013)


Pipelines
gas 3,726 km; oil 2,451 km (2013)


Railways
total:10,777 kmcountry comparison to the world: 22
broad gauge:134 km 1.524-m gauge
standard gauge:10,639 km 1.435-m gauge (4,020 km electrified)
narrow gauge:4 km 1.000-m gauge (2012)


    Roadways
total:84,185 kmcountry comparison to the world: 55
paved:49,873 km (includes 337 km of expressways)
unpaved:34,312 km (2012)


Waterways
1,731 km (includes 1,075 km on the Danube River, 524 km on secondary branches, and 132 km on canals) (2010)
country comparison to the world: 46


Merchant marine
total:5country comparison to the world: 127
by type:cargo 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 1, roll on/roll off 1
foreign-owned:1 (Russia 1)
registered in other countries:31 (Georgia 7, Liberia 3, Malta 7, Marshall Islands 2, Moldova 2, Panama 3, Russia 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 2, Tanzania 1, Togo 1, unknown 1) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Constanta, Midia
river port(s):Braila, Galati (Galatz), Mancanului (Giurgiu), Tulcea (Danube River)


Military


Military branches
Land Forces, Naval Forces (Fortele Naval, FN), Romanian Air Force (Fortele Aeriene Romane, FAR) (2013)


Military service age and obligation
20-35 years of age for compulsory male military service; conscription ended 2006, but military service remains mandatory; 18 years of age for male and female voluntary service; all military inductees (including women) contract for an initial 5-year term of service, with subsequent successive 3-year terms until age 36 (2012)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:5,601,234
females age 16-49:5,428,939 (2010 est.)


Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:4,550,409
females age 16-49:4,507,880 (2010 est.)


    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:117,798
female:111,607 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
1.29% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 79
1.3% of GDP (2011)
1.29% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
the ICJ ruled largely in favor of Romania in its dispute submitted in 2004 over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy/Serpilor (Snake) Island and Black Sea maritime boundary delimitation; Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea


    Refugees and internally displaced persons
stateless persons:248 (2012)


Illicit drugs
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe; although not a significant financial center, role as a narcotics conduit leaves it vulnerable to laundering, which occurs via the banking system, currency exchange houses, and casinos

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in Romania 2017


           
 

 
Romania

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
36
74.26
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
62
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
53
 
  DTF
89.48
 
  DTF
60.00
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
6.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Time - Men (number)
12.0
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Cost - Men (days)
2.0
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
9.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
6.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
4.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
12.0
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
2.0
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
0.6
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
6.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
95
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
7.0
 
  DTF
68.67
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
20.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
50
 
  Time (days)
171.0
 
  DTF
81.64
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
2.0
 
  Payments (number per year)
14.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
13.0
 
  Time (hours per year)
161.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
2.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
38.4
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
11.6
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
25.8
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
1.1
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
79.6
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
4.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
1
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
134
 
  DTF
100.00
 
  DTF
56.48
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
0
 
  Procedures (number)
8.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
0
 
  Time (days)
182.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
1
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
561.1
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
0
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
7.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
0
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
2.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
0
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
1
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
1.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
0
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
26
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
1.0
 
  DTF
71.08
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
8.5
 
  Time (days)
512.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
28.9
 
  Registering Property (rank)
57
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
14.0
 
  DTF
71.11
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
7.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
49
 
  Time (days)
21.0
 
  DTF
59.16
 
  Cost (% of property value)
1.4
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
34.4
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
16.0
 
  Time (years)
3.3
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
4.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
10.5
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
6.0
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
0
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
0.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
13.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
6.0
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
2.5
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
0.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
6.0
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
2.5
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
7
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
2.0
 
  DTF
85.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
10.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
7.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
16.8
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
51.1
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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