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Spain Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Southwestern Europe, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, Bay of Biscay, and Pyrenees Mountains; southwest of France


Geographic coordinates:
40 00 N, 4 00 W


Map references:
Europe


Area:
total:505,370 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 52
land:498,980 sq km
water:6,390 sq km
note:there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera


Area - comparative:
Area comparison map: '>


Land boundaries:
total:1,920.4 km
border countries:Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 8 km, Morocco (Melilla) 10.5 km
note:an additional 75-meter border segment exists between Morocco and the Spanish exclave of Penon de Velez de la Gomera


Coastline:
4,964 km


Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)


    Climate:
temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast


Terrain:
large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees Mountains in north


Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point:Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m


Natural resources:
coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land


Land use:
arable land:24.75%
permanent crops:9.29%
other:65.96% (2011)


Irrigated land:
34,700 sq km (2011)


Total renewable water resources:
111.5 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
111.5 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
periodic droughts, occasional flooding


Environment - current issues:
pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants


Geography - note:
strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar; Spain controls a number of territories in northern Morocco including the enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Spaniard(s)
adjective:Spanish


Ethnic groups:
composite of Mediterranean and Nordic types


Languages:
Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, and Basque 2%


Religions:
Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%


Population:
47,737,941 (July 2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 29


Age structure:
0-14 years:15.4% (male 3,791,781/female 3,575,157)
15-24 years:9.6% (male 2,370,289/female 2,212,511)
25-54 years:45.9% (male 11,158,451/female 10,752,197)
55-64 years:11.4% (male 2,662,055/female 2,799,379)
65 years and over:17.5% (male 3,582,643/female 4,833,478) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:50.3 %
youth dependency ratio:23.2 %
elderly dependency ratio:27.1 %
potential support ratio:3.7 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:41.6 years
male:40.4 years
female:42.9 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
0.81% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 135


Birth rate:
9.88 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 197


Death rate:
9 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 68


Net migration rate:
7.24 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 19


Urbanization:
urban population:77.4% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:0.81% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
MADRID (capital) 6.574 million; Barcelona 5.57 million; Valencia 797,000 (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.07 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years:1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.74 male(s)/female
total population:0.97 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
29.8 (2010 est.)


Maternal mortality rate:
6 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:3.33 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 212
male:3.66 deaths/1,000 live births
female:2.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:81.47 yearscountry comparison to the world: 18
male:78.47 years
female:84.67 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
1.48 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 194


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
65.7% (2006)


Health expenditures:
9.6% of GDP (2010)


Physicians density:
3.96 physicians/1,000 population (2011)


Hospital bed density:
3.2 beds/1,000 population (2010)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 99.9% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0.1% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population
unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.4% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 84


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
130,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 38


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
1,600 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 64


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
26.6% (2008)country comparison to the world: 45


Education expenditures:
5% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 80

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:97.7%
male:98.5%
female:97% (2010 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:17 years
male:17 years
female:18 years (2011)


Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:53.2%country comparison to the world: 5
male:54.4%
female:51.8% (2012)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Spain
conventional short form:Spain
local long form:Reino de Espana
local short form:Espana


Government type:
parliamentary monarchy


Capital:
name:Madrid
geographic coordinates:40 24 N, 3 41 W
time difference:UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time:+1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
note:Spain has two time zones including the Canary Islands


Administrative divisions:
17 autonomous communities (comunidades autonomas, singular - comunidad autonoma) and 2 autonomous cities* (ciudades autonomas, singular - ciudad autonoma); Andalucia; Aragon; Asturias; Canarias (Canary Islands); Cantabria; Castilla-La Mancha; Castilla-Leon; Cataluna (Castilian), Catalunya (Catalan), Catalonha (Aranese) [Catalonia]; Ceuta*; Comunidad Valenciana (Castilian), Comunitat Valenciana (Valencian) [Valencian Community]; Extremadura; Galicia; Illes Baleares (Balearic Islands); La Rioja; Madrid; Melilla*; Murcia; Navarra (Castilian), Nafarroa (Basque) [Navarre]; Pais Vasco (Castilian), Euskadi (Basque) [Basque Country]


Independence:
1492; the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Muslim occupation that began in the early 8th century A.D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain


National holiday:
National Day, 12 October (1492); year when Columbus first set foot in the Americas


Constitution:
previous 1812; latest approved by legislature 31 October 1978, passed by referendum 6 December 1978, signed by the king 27 December 1978, effective 29 December 1978; amended 1992, 2011 (2013)


Legal system:
civil law system with regional variations


International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal


Executive branch:
chief of state:King FELIPE VI (since 19 June 2014); Heir Apparent Princess Leonor, daughter of the monarch, born 31 October 2005
head of government:President of the Government (Prime Minister equivalent) Mariano RAJOY (since 20 December 2011); Vice President (and Minister of the President's Office) Soraya SAENZ DE SANTAMARIA (since 22 December 2011)
cabinet:Council of Ministers designated by the president
note:there is also a Council of State that is the supreme consultative organ of the government, but its recommendations are non-binding
elections:the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually proposed president by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held in November 2015); vice president and Council of Ministers are appointed by the president
election results:Mariano RAJOY elected President of the Government; percent of National Assembly vote - 44.62%


Legislative branch:
bicameral; General Courts or Las Cortes Generales (National Assembly) consists of the Senate or Senado (257 seats as of 2013; 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 49 - as of 2013 - appointed by the regional legislatures and 265 seats as of 2014; 208 members directly elected by popular vote and the other 57 - as of 2014 - appointed by the regional legislatures; members to serve four-year terms) and the Congress of Deputies or Congreso de los Diputados (350 seats; each of the 50 electoral provinces fills a minimum of two seats and the North African enclaves of Ceuta and Melilla fill one seat each with members serving a four-year term; the other 248 members are determined by proportional representation based on popular vote on block lists who serve four-year terms)
elections:Senate - last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held by November 2015); Congress of Deputies - last held on 20 November 2011 (next to be held by November 2015)
election results:Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PP 136, PSOE 48, CiU 9, Entesa (PSC-PSOE) 7, EAJ/PNV 4, other 4, members appointed by regional legislatures 49; Congress of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PP 44.6%, PSOE 28.8%, CiU 4.2%, IU 6.9%, Amaiur 1.4%, UPyD 4.7%, EAJ/PNV 1.3%, other 8.1%; seats by party - PP 186, PSOE 110, CiU 16, IU 11, Amaiur 7, UPyD 5, EAJ/PNV 5, other 10


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court or Tribunal Supremo (consists of the court president and organized into the Civil Room with a president and 9 magistrates, the Penal Room with a president and 14 magistrates, the Administrative Room with a president and 32 magistrates, the Social Room with a president and 12 magistrates, and the Military Room with a president and 7 magistrates); Constitutional Court or Tribunal Constitucional de Espana (consists of 12 judges)
judge selection and term of office:Supreme Court judges appointed by the monarch from candidates proposed by the General Council of the Judicial Power, a 20-member body chaired by the monarch and includes presidential appointees, and lawyers and jurists elected by the National Assembly; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the monarch for 9-year terms
subordinate courts:National Court; High Courts of Justice (in each of the autonomous communities); provincial courts; courts of first instance


    Political parties and leaders:
Amaiur [collective leadership] (a separatist political coalition that advocates Basque independence from Spain)
Basque Nationalist Party or PNV or EAJ [Inigo URKULLU Renteria]
Canarian Coalition or CC [Claudina MORALES Rodriquez] (a coalition of five parties)
Ciutadans [Albert Rivera] (an anti-separatist Catalan party)
Convergence and Union or CiU [Artur MAS i Gavarro] (a coalition of the Democratic Convergence of Catalonia or CDC [Artur MAS i Gavarro] and the Democratic Union of Catalonia or UDC [Josep Antoni DURAN i LLEIDA])
Entesa Catalonia de Progress (a Senate coalition grouping four Catalan parties - PSC, ERC, ICV, EUA)
Galician Nationalist Bloc or BNG [Guillerme VAZQUEZ Vazquez]
Initiative for Catalonia Greens or ICV [Joan HERRERA i Torres]
Yes to the Future or Geroa Bai [collective leadership] (a coalition of four Navarran parties)
Popular Party or PP [Mariano RAJOY Brey]
Republican Left of Catalonia or ERC [Oriol JUNQUERAS i Vies]
Spanish Socialist Workers Party or PSOE [Alfredo Perez RUBALCABA]
Union of People of Navarra or UPN [Yolanda BARCINA Angulo]
Union, Progress and Democracy or UPyD [Rosa DIEZ Gonzalez]
United Left or IU [Cayo LARA Moya] (a coalition of parties including the Communist Party of Spain or PCE and other small parties)


Political pressure groups and leaders:
Association for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorist organization)


International organization participation:
ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BCIE, BIS, CAN (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Ramon GIL-CASARES Satrustegui (since 5 June 2012)
chancery:2375 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone:[1] (202) 452-0100, 728-2340
FAX:[1] (202) 833-5670
consulate(s) general:Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico)


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador James COSTOS (since 22 August 2013); note - also accredited to Andorra
embassy:Serrano 75, 28006 Madrid
mailing address:PSC 61, APO AE 09642
telephone:[34] (91) 587-2200
FAX:[34] (91) 587-2303
consulate(s) general:Barcelona


Flag description:
three horizontal bands of red (top), yellow (double width), and red with the national coat of arms on the hoist side of the yellow band; the coat of arms is quartered to display the emblems of the traditional kingdoms of Spain (clockwise from upper left, Castile, Leon, Navarre, and Aragon) while Granada is represented by the stylized pomegranate at the bottom of the shield; the arms are framed by two columns representing the Pillars of Hercules, which are the two promontories (Gibraltar and Ceuta) on either side of the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar; the red scroll across the two columns bears the imperial motto of 'Plus Ultra' (further beyond) referring to Spanish lands beyond Europe; the triband arrangement with the center stripe twice the width of the outer dates to the 18th century


National symbol(s):
Pillars of Hercules


National anthem:
name:'Himno Nacional Espanol' (National Anthem of Spain)

lyrics/music:none/unknown
note:officially in use between 1770 and 1931, restored in 1939; the Spanish anthem is the first anthem to be officially adopted, but it has no lyrics; in the years prior to 1931 it became known as 'Marcha Real' (The Royal March); it first appeared in a 1761 military bugle call book and was replaced by 'Himno de Riego' in the years between 1931 and 1939; the long version of the anthem is used for the king, while the short version is used for the prince, prime minister, and occasions such as sporting events


Economy


Economy - overview:
Spain experienced a prolonged recession in the wake of the global financial crisis. GDP contracted by 3.7% in 2009, ending a 16-year growth trend, and continued contracting through most of 2013. Economic growth resumed in late 2013, albeit only modestly, as credit contraction in the private sector, fiscal austerity, and high unemployment continued to weigh on domestic consumption and investment. Exports, however, have been resilient throughout the economic downturn, partially offsetting declines in domestic consumption and helped to bring Spain's current account into surplus in 2013 for the first time since 1986. The unemployment rate rose from a low of about 8% in 2007 to more than 26% in 2013, straining Spain's public finances as spending on social benefits increased while tax revenues fell. Spain’s budget deficit peaked at 11.4% of GDP in 2009. Spain gradually reduced the deficit to just under 7% of GDP in 2013, slightly above the 6.5% target negotiated between Spain and the EU. Public debt has increased substantially – from 60.1% of GDP in 2010 to 93.4% in 2013. Rising labor productivity, moderating labor costs, and lower inflation have helped to improve foreign investor interest in the economy and to reduce government borrowing costs. The government's ongoing efforts to implement reforms - labor, pension, health, tax, and education - are aimed at supporting investor sentiment. The government also has shored up struggling banks exposed to Spain's depressed domestic construction and real estate sectors by successfully completing an EU-funded restructuring and recapitalization program in December 2013.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$1.389 trillion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
$1.407 trillion (2012 est.)
$1.43 trillion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$1.356 trillion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
-1.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 207
-1.6% (2012 est.)
0.1% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$30,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 47
$30,500 (2012 est.)
$31,000 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
18.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
18.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
17.5% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:59%
government consumption:19.9%
investment in fixed capital:18.4%
investment in inventories:0.4%
exports of goods and services:32.8%
imports of goods and services:-30.4%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:3.1%
industry:26%
services:70.8% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
grain, vegetables, olives, wine grapes, sugar beets, citrus; beef, pork, poultry, dairy products; fish


Industries:
textiles and apparel (including footwear), food and beverages, metals and metal manufactures, chemicals, shipbuilding, automobiles, machine tools, tourism, clay and refractory products, footwear, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment


Industrial production growth rate:
-1.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 180

Labor force:
23.2 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:4.2%
industry:24%
services:71.7% (2009 est.)


Unemployment rate:
26.3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 175
25.1% (2012 est.)


Population below poverty line:
21.1% (2012)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:2.6%
highest 10%:26.6% (2000)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:
32 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 107
32.5 (1990)


    Budget:
revenues:$505.1 billion
expenditures:$597.3 billion (2013 est.)


Taxes and other revenues:
37.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 56

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-6.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185


Public debt:
93.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
85.9% of GDP (2012 est.)


Fiscal year:
calendar year


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
2.4% (2012 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
0.75% (31 December 2013)
country comparison to the world: 128
1.5% (31 December 2010)
note:this is the European Central Bank's rate on the marginal lending facility, which offers overnight credit to banks in the euro area


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
8% (31 December 2013 est.)
NA% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$777.3 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 8
$785.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
note:see entry for the European Union for money supply in the euro area; the European Central Bank (ECB) controls monetary policy for the 17 members of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU); individual members of the EMU do not control the quantity of money circulating within their own borders


Stock of broad money:
$2.003 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 9
$2.096 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$2.936 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$3.045 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$995.1 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Current account balance:
$2.1 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
-$15.14 billion (2012 est.)


Exports:
$458 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 13
$432 billion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
machinery, motor vehicles; foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals, medicines, other consumer goods


Exports - partners:
France 16.8%, Germany 10.8%, Italy 7.7%, Portugal 7.1%, UK 6.5% (2012)


Imports:
$431 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14
$422 billion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
machinery and equipment, fuels, chemicals, semifinished goods, foodstuffs, consumer goods, measuring and medical control instruments


Imports - partners:
Germany 11.8%, France 11.5%, Italy 6.7%, China 5.6%, Netherlands 5.4%, UK 4.1% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$50.59 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
$47.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)


Debt - external:
$2.278 trillion (31 December 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$2.269 trillion (31 December 2011)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$779.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10
$725.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$714.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
$710.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
euros (EUR) per US dollar -
0.7634 (2013 est.)
0.7752 (2012 est.)
0.755 (2010 est.)
0.7198 (2009 est.)
0.6827 (2008 est.)


Energy


Electricity - production:
276.8 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15


Electricity - consumption:
249.7 billion kWh (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14


Electricity - exports:
19.59 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 10


Electricity - imports:
8.209 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
101.7 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
48.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
7.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
13% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
25.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5


Crude oil - production:
29,290 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 68


Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184


Crude oil - imports:
1.061 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 11


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
150 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 65


Refined petroleum products - production:
1.189 million bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 18


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
1.384 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16


Refined petroleum products - exports:
249,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25


Refined petroleum products - imports:
566,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12


Natural gas - production:
61 million cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 85


Natural gas - consumption:
35.82 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26


Natural gas - exports:
4.414 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36


Natural gas - imports:
36.75 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 16


Natural gas - proved reserves:
2.548 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
318.6 million Mt (2011 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
19.22 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 15


Telephones - mobile cellular:
50.663 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 28


Telephone system:
general assessment:well-developed, modern facilities; fixed-line teledensity exceeds 40 per 100 persons
domestic:combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 150 telephones per 100 persons
international:country code - 34; submarine cables provide connectivity to Europe, Middle East, Asia, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to adjacent countries (2011)



    Broadcast media:
a mixture of both publicly operated and privately owned TV and radio stations; overall, hundreds of TV channels are available including national, regional, local, public, and international channels; satellite and cable TV systems available; multiple national radio networks, a large number of regional radio networks, and a larger number of local radio stations; overall, hundreds of radio stations (2008)


Internet country code:
.es


Internet hosts:
4.228 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 26


Internet users:
28.119 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 14



Transportation


Airports
150 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 38


Airports - with paved runways
total:99
over 3,047 m:18
2,438 to 3,047 m:14
1,524 to 2,437 m:19
914 to 1,523 m:24
under 914 m:24 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:51
1,524 to 2,437 m:2
914 to 1,523 m:13
under 914 m:
36 (2013)


Heliports
10 (2013)


Pipelines
gas 10,481 km; oil 616 km; refined products 3,461 km (2013)


Railways
total:15,293 kmcountry comparison to the world: 19
broad gauge:11,919 km 1.668-m gauge (6,950 km electrified)
standard gauge:1,392 km 1.435-m gauge (1,054 km electrified)
narrow gauge:1,954 km 1.000-m gauge (815 km electrified); 28 km 0.914-m gauge (2008)


    Roadways
total:683,175 kmcountry comparison to the world: 10
paved:683,175 km (includes 16,205 km of expressways) (2011)


Waterways
1,000 km (2012)
country comparison to the world: 65


Merchant marine
total:132country comparison to the world: 44
by type:bulk carrier 7, cargo 19, chemical tanker 8, container 5, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 43, petroleum tanker 18, refrigerated cargo 4, roll on/roll off 9, vehicle carrier 7
foreign-owned:27 (Canada 4, Germany 4, Italy 1, Mexico 1, Norway 10, Russia 6, Switzerland 1)
registered in other countries:103 (Angola 1, Argentina 3, Bahamas 6, Brazil 12, Cabo Verde 1, Cyprus 6, Ireland 1, Malta 8, Morocco 9, Panama 30, Peru 1, Portugal 18, Uruguay 5, Venezuela 1, unknown 1) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Algeciras, Barcelona, Bilbao, Cartagena, Huelva, Tarragona, Valencia (Spain); Las Palmas, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Canary Islands)
container port(s) (TEUs):Algeciras (3,608,301), Barcelona (2,033,747), Valencia (4,327,371); Las Palmas (1,287,389)


Military


Military branches
Spanish Armed Forces: Army (Ejercito de Tierra), Spanish Navy (Armada Espanola, AE; includes Marine Corps), Spanish Air Force (Ejercito del Aire Espanola, EdA) (2013)


Military service age and obligation
18-26 years of age for voluntary military service by a Spanish citizen or legal immigrant, 2-3 year obligation; women allowed to serve in all SAF branches, including combat units; no conscription, but Spanish Government retains right to mobilize citizens 19-25 years of age in a national emergency; mandatory retirement of non-NCO enlisted personnel at age 45 or 58, depending on service length (2013)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:11,759,557
females age 16-49:11,204,688 (2010 est.)


    Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:9,603,939
females age 16-49:9,116,928 (2010 est.)


Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:217,244
female:205,278 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
0.86% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 111
0.95% of GDP (2011)
0.86% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
in 2002, Gibraltar residents voted overwhelmingly by referendum to reject any 'shared sovereignty' arrangement; the Government of Gibraltar insists on equal participation in talks between the UK and Spain; Spain disapproves of UK plans to grant Gibraltar greater autonomy; Morocco protests Spain's control over the coastal enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla, and the islands of Penon de Velez de la Gomera, Penon de Alhucemas, and Islas Chafarinas, and surrounding waters; both countries claim Isla Perejil (Leila Island); Morocco serves as the primary launching site of illegal migration into Spain from North Africa; Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza based on a difference of interpretation of the 1815 Congress of Vienna and the 1801 Treaty of Badajoz


    Refugees and internally displaced persons
stateless persons:36 (2012)


Illicit drugs
despite rigorous law enforcement efforts, North African, Latin American, Galician, and other European traffickers take advantage of Spain's long coastline to land large shipments of cocaine and hashish for distribution to the European market; consumer for Latin American cocaine and North African hashish; destination and minor transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin; money-laundering site for Colombian narcotics trafficking organizations and organized crime

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in Spain 2017


           
 

 
Spain

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
32
75.73
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
85
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
32
 
  DTF
86.61
 
  DTF
65.00
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
7.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
6.5
 
  Time - Men (number)
13.0
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
5.7
 
  Cost - Men (days)
5.0
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
7.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
13.0
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
6.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
5.0
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
7.3
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
12.9
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
10.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
4.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
113
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
8.0
 
  DTF
65.95
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
13.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
37
 
  Time (days)
205.0
 
  DTF
83.80
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
5.2
 
  Payments (number per year)
8.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
11.0
 
  Time (hours per year)
152.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
2.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
49.0
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
12.4
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
35.9
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
0.8
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
92.6
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
2.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
1
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
78
 
  DTF
100.00
 
  DTF
72.99
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
0
 
  Procedures (number)
7.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
0
 
  Time (days)
107.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
1
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
216.1
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
0
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
8.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
0
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
3.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
0
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
1
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
1.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
0
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
29
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
1.0
 
  DTF
69.48
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
15.9
 
  Time (days)
510.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
18.5
 
  Registering Property (rank)
50
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
11.0
 
  DTF
73.88
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
5.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
18
 
  Time (days)
12.5
 
  DTF
79.62
 
  Cost (% of property value)
6.1
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
78.3
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
22.5
 
  Time (years)
1.5
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
7.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
11.0
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
3.0
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
1
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
6.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
12.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
6.5
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
0.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
6.0
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
62
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
1.0
 
  DTF
60.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
5.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
7.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
49.6
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
17.9
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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