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Thailand Business Guide


Geography


Location:
Southeastern Asia, bordering the Andaman Sea and the Gulf of Thailand, southeast of Burma


Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 100 00 E


Map references:
Southeast Asia


Area:
total:513,120 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 51
land:510,890 sq km
water:2,230 sq km


Area - comparative:
slightly more than twice the size of Wyoming


Land boundaries:
total:4,863 km
border countries:Burma 1,800 km, Cambodia 803 km, Laos 1,754 km, Malaysia 506 km


Coastline:
3,219 km


Maritime claims:
territorial sea:12 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


Climate:
tropical; rainy, warm, cloudy southwest monsoon (mid-May to September); dry, cool northeast monsoon (November to mid-March); southern isthmus always hot and humid


Terrain:
central plain; Khorat Plateau in the east; mountains elsewhere


    Elevation extremes:
lowest point:Gulf of Thailand 0 m
highest point:Doi Inthanon 2,576 m


Natural resources:
tin, rubber, natural gas, tungsten, tantalum, timber, lead, fish, gypsum, lignite, fluorite, arable land


Land use:
arable land:30.71%
permanent crops:8.77%
other:60.52% (2011)


Irrigated land:
64,150 sq km (2007)


Total renewable water resources:
438.6 cu km (2011)


Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
438.6 cu km (2011)

Natural hazards:
land subsidence in Bangkok area resulting from the depletion of the water table; droughts


Environment - current issues:
air pollution from vehicle emissions; water pollution from organic and factory wastes; deforestation; soil erosion; wildlife populations threatened by illegal hunting


Environment - international agreements:
party to:Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified:Law of the Sea


Geography - note:
controls only land route from Asia to Malaysia and Singapore



People and Society


Nationality:
noun: Thai (singular and plural)
adjective:Thai


Ethnic groups:
Thai 95.9%, Burmese 2%, other 1.3%, unspecified 0.9% (2010 est.)


Languages:
Thai (official) 90.7%, Burmese 1.3%, other 8%


Religions:
Buddhist (official) 93.6%, Muslim 4.9%, Christian 1.2%, other 0.2%, none 0.1% (2010 est.)


Population:
67,741,401country comparison to the world: 21
note:estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2014 est.)



Age structure:
0-14 years:17.6% (male 6,117,993/female 5,827,981)
15-24 years:15% (male 5,194,332/female 4,999,669)
25-54 years:46.9% (male 15,685,882/female 16,097,245)
55-64 years:10.9% (male 3,468,620/female 3,893,925)
65 years and over:9.8% (male 2,830,418/female 3,625,336) (2014 est.)


Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio:38.6 %
youth dependency ratio:24.7 %
elderly dependency ratio:13.9 %
potential support ratio:7.2 (2014 est.)


Median age:
total:36.2 years
male:35.3 years
female:37.2 years (2014 est.)


Population growth rate:
0.35% (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 165


Birth rate:
11.26 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 175


Death rate:
7.72 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 110


Net migration rate:
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 81


Urbanization:
urban population:34.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:1.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)


Major urban areas - population:
BANGKOK (capital) 8.426 million; Samut Prakan 1.212 million (2011)


Sex ratio:
at birth:1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years:1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years:0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.82 male(s)/female
total population:0.98 male(s)/female (2014 est.)


Mother's mean age at first birth:
23.3 (2009 est.)


Maternal mortality rate:
48 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)


Infant mortality rate:
total:9.86 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 142
male:10.82 deaths/1,000 live births
female:8.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)


    Life expectancy at birth:
total population:74.18 yearscountry comparison to the world: 115
male:71 years
female:77.54 years (2014 est.)


Total fertility rate:
1.5 children born/woman (2014 est.)country comparison to the world: 192


Contraceptive prevalence rate:
79.6% (2009)


Health expenditures:
4.1% of GDP (2011)


Physicians density:
0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2004)


Hospital bed density:
2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)


Drinking water source:
improved:
urban: 96.7% of population
rural: 95.3% of population
total: 95.8% of population
unimproved:
urban: 3.3% of population
rural: 4.7% of population
total: 4.2% of population (2012 est.)


Sanitation facility access:
improved:
urban: 88.7% of population
rural: 95.9% of population
total: 93.4% of population
unimproved:
urban: 11.3% of population
rural: 4.1% of population
total: 6.6% of population (2012 est.)


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
1.1% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 43


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
443,100 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 19


HIV/AIDS - deaths:
20,800 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 17


Major infectious diseases:


Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
8.8% (2008)country comparison to the world: 135


Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
7% (2006)country comparison to the world: 76


Education expenditures:
5.8% of GDP (2011)country comparison to the world: 47

Literacy:
definition:age 15 and over can read and write
total population:93.5%
male:95.6%
female:91.5% (2005 est.)


School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total:13 years
male:13 years
female:13 years (2009)


Child labor - children ages 5-14:



Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total:2.8%country comparison to the world: 144
male:2.5%
female:3.1% (2012)


Government


Country name:
conventional long form: Kingdom of Thailand
conventional short form:Thailand
local long form:Ratcha Anachak Thai
local short form:Prathet Thai
former:Siam


Government type:
constitutional monarchy


Capital:
name:Bangkok
geographic coordinates:13 45 N, 100 31 E
time difference:UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)


Administrative divisions:
77 provinces (changwat, singular and plural); Amnat Charoen, Ang Thong, Bueng Kan, Buriram, Chachoengsao, Chai Nat, Chaiyaphum, Chanthaburi, Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Chon Buri, Chumphon, Kalasin, Kamphaeng Phet, Kanchanaburi, Khon Kaen, Krabi, Krung Thep Mahanakhon (Bangkok), Lampang, Lamphun, Loei, Lop Buri, Mae Hong Son, Maha Sarakham, Mukdahan, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom, Nakhon Phanom, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Nan, Narathiwat, Nong Bua Lamphu, Nong Khai, Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Pattani, Phangnga, Phatthalung, Phayao, Phetchabun, Phetchaburi, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Phrae, Phuket, Prachin Buri, Prachuap Khiri Khan, Ranong, Ratchaburi, Rayong, Roi Et, Sa Kaeo, Sakon Nakhon, Samut Prakan, Samut Sakhon, Samut Songkhram, Sara Buri, Satun, Sing Buri, Sisaket, Songkhla, Sukhothai, Suphan Buri, Surat Thani, Surin, Tak, Trang, Trat, Ubon Ratchathani, Udon Thani, Uthai Thani, Uttaradit, Yala, Yasothon


Independence:
1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)


National holiday:
Birthday of King PHUMIPHON (BHUMIBOL), 5 December (1927)


Constitution:
many previous; latest approved by referendum 19 August 2007, effective 24 August 2007 (2013)


Legal system:
civil law system with common law influences


International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt


Suffrage:
18 years of age; universal and compulsory


Executive branch:
chief of state:King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet, also spelled BHUMIBOL Adulyadej (since 9 June 1946)
head of government:Prime Minister (acting) NIWATTAMRONG Boonsongpaisan; Deputy Prime Minister PHONGTHEP Thepkanchana also spelled PHONGTHEP Therkanchana (since 28 October 2012); Deputy Prime Minister YUKHON Limlaemthong (since 25 March 2013); note - 4 other deputy prime ministers were removed from office on 7 May 2014
note:Prime Minister YINGLAK Chinnawat, also spelled YINGLUCK Shinawatra, was removed from office on 7 May 2014 after the Constitutional Court ruled she illegally transferred a government official; Thai army declared martial law on 20 May 2014 and a coup on 22 May 2014
cabinet:Council of Ministers
note:a Privy Council advises the king
elections:the monarchy is hereditary; the prime minister is elected from among members of the House of Representatives; following national elections for the House of Representatives, the leader of the party positioned to organize a majority coalition usually becomes prime minister by appointment by the king; the prime minister is limited to two four-year terms


Legislative branch:
bicameral National Assembly or Rathasapha consisted of the Senate or Wuthisapha (150 seats; 76 members elected by popular vote representing 75 provinces and 1 metropolitan district (Bangkok), 74 appointed by the Senate Selection Committee; members serve six-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Sapha Phuthaen Ratsadon (500 seats; 375 members elected from 375 single-seat constituencies and 125 elected on proportional party-list basis; members serve four-year terms)
elections:Senate - last held on 30 March 2014; House of Representatives - last held on 2 February 2014, but later declared invalid by the Constitutional Court; a new election will be held on 20 July 2014
election results:Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA
note:73 senators were appointed on 12 April 2011 by a seven-member committee headed by the chief of the Constitutional Court; 76 senators were elected on 30 March 2014; elections to the Senate are non-partisan; registered political party members are disqualified from being senators


Judicial branch:
highest court(s):Supreme Court of Justice (consists of the court president, 6 vice-presidents, and NA judges and organized into civil and criminal divisions); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 8 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (the number of judges determined by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts)
judge selection and term of office:Supreme Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Courts of Justice and approved by the monarch; judges' terms NA; Constitutional Court justices - 3 judges drawn from the Supreme Court, 2 judges drawn from the Administrative Court, and 4 judge candidates selected by the Selective Committee for Judges of the Constitutional Court and confirmed by the Senate; judges appointed by the monarch to serve single 9-year terms; Supreme Administrative Court judges selected by the Judicial Commission of the Administrative Courts and appointed by the monarch; judge tenure NA
subordinate courts:courts of first instance and appeals courts within both the judicial and administrative systems; military courts


    Political parties and leaders:
Chat Pattana Party or CPN (Nation Development Party) [WANNARAT Channukul]
Chat Thai Phattana Party or CTP (Thai Nation Development Party) [THEERA Wongsamut]
Mahachon Party or Mass Party [APHIRAT Sirinawin]
Matubhum Party (Motherland Party) [ Gen. SONTHI Bunyaratkalin]
Phalang Chon Party (People Chonburi Power Party) [SONTHAYA Khunpluem]
Phumjai (Bhumjai) Thai Party or PJT (Thai Pride) [ANUTIN Charnvirakul]
Prachathipat Party or DP (Democrat Party) [ABHISIT Wechachiwa, also spelled ABHISIT Vejjajiva]
Prachathipathai Mai Party (New Democracy Party) [SURATIN Phijarn]
Puea Thai Party (For Thais Party) or PTP [CHARUPHONG Rueangsuwan also spelled JARUPONG Ruangsuwan]
Rak Prathet Thai Party (Love Thailand Party) [CHUWIT Kamonwisit]
Rak Santi Party (Peace Conservation Party) [Pol. Lt. Gen. THAWIL Surachetphong]


Political pressure groups and leaders:
Multicolor Group


International organization participation:
ADB, APEC, ARF, ASEAN, BIMSTEC, BIS, CD, CICA, CP, EAS, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE (partner), PCA, PIF (partner), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMOGIP, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO


Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador WICHAWAT Isarabhakdi (since 3 December 2013)
chancery:1024 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Suite 401, Washington, DC 20007
telephone:[1] (202) 944-3600
FAX:[1] (202) 944-3611
consulate(s) general:Chicago, Los Angeles, New York


Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission:Ambassador Kristie A. KENNEY (since 10 January 2011)
embassy:120-122 Wireless Road, Bangkok 10330
mailing address:APO AP 96546
telephone:[66] (2) 205-4000
FAX:[66] (2) 254-2990, 205-4131
consulate(s) general:Chiang Mai


Flag description:
five horizontal bands of red (top), white, blue (double width), white, and red; the red color symbolizes the nation and the blood of life; white represents religion and the purity of Buddhism; blue stands for the monarchy


National symbol(s):
garuda (mythical half-man, half-bird figure); elephant


National anthem:
name:'Phleng Chat Thai' (National Anthem of Thailand)

lyrics/music:Luang SARANUPRAPAN/Phra JENDURIYANG
note:music adopted 1932, lyrics adopted 1939; by law, people are required to stand for the national anthem at 0800 and 1800 every day; the anthem is played in schools, offices, theaters, and on television and radio during this time; 'Phleng Sansasoen Phra Barami' (A Salute to the Monarch) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies


Economy


Economy - overview:
With a well-developed infrastructure, a free-enterprise economy, generally pro-investment policies, and strong export industries, Thailand achieved steady growth due largely to industrial and agriculture exports - mostly electronics, agricultural commodities, automobiles and parts, and processed foods. Unemployment, at less than 1% of the labor force, stands as one of the lowest levels in the world, which puts upward pressure on wages in some industries. Thailand also attracts nearly 2.5 million migrant workers from neighboring countries. The Thai government in 2013 implemented a nation-wide 300 baht ($10) per day minimum wage policy and deployed new tax reforms designed to lower rates on middle-income earners. The Thai economy has weathered internal and external economic shocks in recent years. The global economic recession severely cut Thailand's exports, with most sectors experiencing double-digit drops. In late 2011 Thailand's recovery was interrupted by historic flooding in the industrial areas in Bangkok and its five surrounding provinces, crippling the manufacturing sector. The government approved flood mitigation projects worth $11.7 billion, which were started in 2012, to prevent similar economic damage, and an additional $75 billion for infrastructure over the following seven years. This was expected to lead to an economic upsurge but growth has remained slow, in part due to ongoing political unrest and resulting uncertainties. Spending on infrastructure will require re-approval once a new government is seated.


GDP (purchasing power parity):
$673 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25
$654 billion (2012 est.)
$614.2 billion (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):
$400.9 billion (2013 est.)


GDP - real growth rate:
2.9% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119
6.5% (2012 est.)
0.1% (2011 est.)


GDP - per capita (PPP):
$9,900 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 120
$9,600 (2012 est.)
$9,100 (2011 est.)
note:data are in 2013 US dollars


Gross national saving:
30.8% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27
30.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
28.3% of GDP (2011 est.)


GDP - composition, by end use:
household consumption:53.5%
government consumption:13.3%
investment in fixed capital:28.2%
investment in inventories:0.9%
exports of goods and services:70.6%
imports of goods and services:-66.6%
(2013 est.)


GDP - composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture:12.1%
industry:43.6%
services:44.2% (2013 est.)


Agriculture - products:
rice, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rubber, corn, sugarcane, coconuts, soybeans


Industries:
tourism, textiles and garments, agricultural processing, beverages, tobacco, cement, light manufacturing such as jewelry and electric appliances, computers and parts, integrated circuits, furniture, plastics, automobiles and automotive parts; world's second-largest tungsten producer and third-largest tin producer


Industrial production growth rate:
-3.1% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185

Labor force:
39.38 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17


Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture:38.2%
industry:13.6%
services:48.2% (2011 est.)


Unemployment rate:
0.7% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 3
0.7% (2012 est.)


Population below poverty line:
13.2% (2011 est.)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%:2.8%
highest 10%:31.5% (2009 est.)


Distribution of family income - Gini index:
39.4 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 64
42 (2002)


    Budget:
revenues:$80.91 billion
expenditures:$92.9 billion (2013 est.)


Taxes and other revenues:
20.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 162

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-4% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 144


Public debt:
45.9% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
45.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
note:data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions


Fiscal year:
1 October - 30 September


Inflation rate (consumer prices):
2.2% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79
3% (2012 est.)


Central bank discount rate:
2.25% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 102
3.25% (31 December 2011 est.)


Commercial bank prime lending rate:
6.9% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 117
7.1% (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of narrow money:
$50.18 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 45
$52.18 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of broad money:
$516.4 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23
$488.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of domestic credit:
$511.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Market value of publicly traded shares:
$348.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.)


Current account balance:
-$3.2 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 158
-$1.4 billion (2012 est.)


Exports:
$225.4 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26
$225.8 billion (2012 est.)


Exports - commodities:
electronics, computer parts, automobiles and parts, electrical appliances, machinery and equipment, textiles and footwear, fishery products, rice, rubber


Exports - partners:
China 11.7%, Japan 10.2%, US 9.9%, Hong Kong 5.7%, Malaysia 5.4%, Indonesia 4.9%, Singapore 4.7%, Australia 4.3% (2012)


Imports:
$219 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24
$219.8 billion (2012 est.)


Imports - commodities:
capital goods, intermediate goods and raw materials, consumer goods, fuels


Imports - partners:
Japan 20%, China 14.9%, UAE 6.3%, Malaysia 5.3%, US 5.3% (2012)


Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$167.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 17
$181.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Debt - external:
$142.6 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
$130.9 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:
$193.7 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 29
$159.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:
$65.14 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 34
$52.56 billion (31 December 2012 est.)


Exchange rates:
baht per US dollar -
30.59 (2013 est.)
31.083 (2012 est.)
31.686 (2010 est.)
34.286 (2009)
33.37 (2008)


Energy


Electricity - production:
173.3 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 24


Electricity - consumption:
169.4 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23


Electricity - exports:
1.535 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49


Electricity - imports:
9.575 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25


Electricity - installed generating capacity:
32.6 million kW (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 27


Electricity - from fossil fuels:
89% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 80


Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 184


Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
10.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 110


Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 95


Crude oil - production:
574,000 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 30


Crude oil - exports:
32,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50


Crude oil - imports:
793,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 14


    Crude oil - proved reserves:
453.3 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 51


Refined petroleum products - production:
913,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 23


Refined petroleum products - consumption:
721,100 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25


Refined petroleum products - exports:
192,400 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31


Refined petroleum products - imports:
41,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78


Natural gas - production:
36.99 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 26


Natural gas - consumption:
45.08 billion cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20


Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188


Natural gas - imports:
9.58 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31


Natural gas - proved reserves:
284.9 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 40


Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
269.6 million Mt (2011 est.)



Communications


Telephones - main lines in use:
6.391 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 26


Telephones - mobile cellular:
84.075 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 17


Telephone system:
general assessment:high quality system, especially in urban areas like Bangkok
domestic:fixed line system provided by both a government-owned and commercial provider; wireless service expanding rapidly
international:country code - 66; connected to major submarine cable systems providing links throughout Asia, Australia, Middle East, Europe, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Pacific Ocean) (2011)



    Broadcast media:
6 terrestrial TV stations in Bangkok broadcast nationally via relay stations - 2 of the networks are owned by the military, the other 4 are government-owned or controlled, leased to private enterprise, and all are required to broadcast government-produced news programs twice a day; multi-channel satellite and cable TV subscription services are available; radio frequencies have been allotted for more than 500 government and commercial radio stations; many small community radio stations operate with low-power transmitters (2008)


Internet country code:
.th


Internet hosts:
3.399 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 31


Internet users:
17.483 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 23



Transportation


Airports
101 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 56


Airports - with paved runways
total:63
over 3,047 m:8
2,438 to 3,047 m:12
1,524 to 2,437 m:23
914 to 1,523 m:14
under 914 m:6 (2013)


Airports - with unpaved runways
total:38
2,438 to 3,047 m:1
1,524 to 2,437 m:1
914 to 1,523 m:10
under 914 m:
26 (2013)


Heliports
7 (2013)


Pipelines
condensate 2 km; gas 5,900 km; liquid petroleum gas 85 km; oil 1 km; refined products 1,097 km (2013)


Railways
total:4,071 kmcountry comparison to the world: 43
standard gauge:29 km 1.435-m gauge (29 km electrified)
narrow gauge:4,042 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)


    Roadways
total:180,053 km (includes 450 km of expressways) (2006)country comparison to the world: 28

Waterways
4,000 km (3,701 km navigable by boats with drafts up to 0.9 m) (2011)
country comparison to the world: 26


Merchant marine
total:363country comparison to the world: 28
by type:bulk carrier 31, cargo 99, chemical tanker 28, container 18, liquefied gas 36, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 10, petroleum tanker 114, refrigerated cargo 24, roll on/roll off 1, vehicle carrier 1
foreign-owned:13 (China 1, Hong Kong 1, Malaysia 3, Singapore 1, Taiwan 1, UK 6)
registered in other countries:46 (Bahamas 4, Belize 1, Honduras 2, Panama 6, Singapore 33) (2010)



Ports and terminals
major seaport(s):Bangkok, Laem Chabang, Map Ta Phut, Prachuap Port, Si Racha
container port(s) TEUs):Bangkok (1,305,229), Laem Chabang (5,731,063)


Military


Military branches
Royal Thai Army (Kongthap Bok Thai, RTA), Royal Thai Navy (Kongthap Ruea Thai, RTN, includes Royal Thai Marine Corps), Royal Thai Air Force (Kongthap Agard Thai, RTAF) (2013)


Military service age and obligation
21 years of age for compulsory military service; 18 years of age for voluntary military service; males register at 18 years of age; 2-year conscript service obligation (2012)


Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49:17,689,921
females age 16-49:17,754,795 (2010 est.)


Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49:13,308,372
females age 16-49:14,182,567 (2010 est.)


    Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male:533,424
female:509,780 (2010 est.)


Military expenditures
1.47% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 65
1.6% of GDP (2011)
1.47% of GDP (2010)


Transnational Issues


Disputes - international
separatist violence in Thailand's predominantly Malay-Muslim southern provinces prompt border closures and controls with Malaysia to stem insurgent activities; Southeast Asian states have enhanced border surveillance to check the spread of avian flu; talks continue on completion of demarcation with Laos but disputes remain over several islands in the Mekong River; despite continuing border committee talks, Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic rebels, refugees, and illegal cross-border activities; Cambodia and Thailand dispute sections of boundary; in 2011 Thailand and Cambodia resorted to arms in the dispute over the location of the boundary on the precipice surmounted by Preah Vihear temple ruins, awarded to Cambodia by ICJ decision in 1962 and part of a planned UN World Heritage site; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween river near the border with Burma; in 2004, international environmentalist pressure prompted China to halt construction of 13 dams on the Salween River that flows through China, Burma, and Thailand; 140,000 mostly Karen refugees fleeing civil strife, political upheaval and economic stagnation in Burma live in remote camps in Thailand near the border


    Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin):78,970 (Burma) (2013)
IDPs:up to 35,000 (resurgence in ethno-nationalist violence in south of country since 2004) (2013)
stateless persons:506,197 (2012); note - about half of Thailand's northern hill tribe people do not have citizenship and make up the bulk of Thailand's stateless population; most lack documentation showing they or one of their parents were born in Thailand; children born to Burmese refugees are not eligible for Burmese or Thai citizenship and are stateless; most Chao Lay, maritime nomadic peoples, who travel from island to island in the Andaman Sea west of Thailand are also stateless; stateless Rohingya refugees from Burma are considered illegal migrants by Thai authorities and are detained in inhumane conditions or expelled; stateless persons are denied access to voting, property, education, employment, healthcare, and driving



Trafficking in persons



Illicit drugs
a minor producer of opium, heroin, and marijuana; transit point for illicit heroin en route to the international drug market from Burma and Laos; eradication efforts have reduced the area of cannabis cultivation and shifted some production to neighboring countries; opium poppy cultivation has been reduced by eradication efforts; also a drug money-laundering center; minor role in methamphetamine production for regional consumption; major consumer of methamphetamine since the 1990s despite a series of government crackdowns

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book



Doing Business in Thailand 2017


           
 

 
Thailand

  Ease of Doing Business Rank
Overall DTF
46
72.53
 
 
Starting a Business (rank)
78
 
 
Protecting Minority Investors (rank)
27
 
  DTF
87.01
 
  DTF
66.67
 
  Procedures - Men (number)
5.0
 
  Strength of minority investor protection index (0-10)
6.7
 
  Time - Men (number)
25.5
 
  Extent of conflict of interest regulation index (0-10)
8.0
 
  Cost - Men (days)
6.6
 
  Extent of disclosure index (0-10)
10.0
 
  Procedures - Women (days)
5.0
 
  Extent of director liability index (0-10)
7.0
 
  Time - Women (% of income per capita)
25.5
 
  Ease of shareholder suits index (0-10)
7.0
 
  Cost - Women (% of income per capita)
6.6
 
  Extent of shareholder governance index (0-10)
5.3
 
  Paid-in min. capital (% of income per capita)
0.0
 
  Extent of shareholder rights index (0-10)
4.0
 
 

 
  Extent of ownership and control index (0-10)
5.0
 
  Dealing with Construction Permits (rank)
42
 
  Extent of corporate transparency index (0-10)
7.0
 
  DTF
75.65
 
 

 
  Procedures (number)
17.0
 
  Paying Taxes (rank)
109
 
  Time (days)
103.0
 
  DTF
68.68
 
  Cost (% of warehouse value)
0.1
 
  Payments (number per year)
21.0
 
  Building Quality Control Index(0-15)
11.0
 
  Time (hours per year)
266.0
 
  Quality of building regulations index (0-2)
2.0
 
  Total tax rate (% of profit)
32.6
 
  Quality control before construction index (0-1)
1.0
 
  Profit tax (% of profit)
21.6
 
  Quality control during construction index (0-3)
2.0
 
  Labor tax and contributions (% of profit)
5.4
 
  Quality control after construction index (0-3)
3.0
 
  Other taxes (% of profit)
2.6
 
  Liability and insurance regimes index (0-2)
1.0
 
  Postfiling index (0-100)
47.3
 
  Professional certifications index (0-4)
2.0
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
  Trading Across Borders (rank)
56
 
  Getting Electricity (rank)
37
 
  DTF
84.10
 
  DTF
83.22
 
  Time to export: Border compliance (hours)
51
 
  Procedures (number)
5.0
 
  Cost to export: Border compliance (USD)
223
 
  Time (days)
37.0
 
  Time to export: Documentary compliance (hours)
11
 
  Cost (% of income per capita)
42.5
 
  Cost to export: Documentary compliance (hours) (USD)
97
 
  Reliability of supply and transparency of tariff index (0-8)
6.0
 
  Time to import: Border compliance (hours)
50
 
  Total duration and frequency of outages per customer a year (0-3)
2.0
 
  Cost to import: Border compliance (USD)
233
 
  Mechanisms for monitoring outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Time to import: Documentary compliance (hours)
4
 
  Mechanisms for restoring service (0-1)
1.0
 
  Cost to import: Documentary compliance (USD)
43
 
  Regulatory monitoring (0-1)
1.0
 
   
 
 
  Financial deterrents aimed at limiting outages (0-1)
1.0
 
  Enforcing Contracts (rank)
51
 
  Communication of tariffs and tariff changes (0-1)
0.0
 
  DTF
64.54
 
  Price of electricity (US cents per kWh)
15.0
 
  Time (days)
440.0
 
   
 
 
  Cost (% of claim)
19.5
 
  Registering Property (rank)
68
 
  Quality of judicial processes index (0-18)
7.5
 
  DTF
68.34
 
   
 
 
  Procedures (number)
4.0
 
  Resolving Insolvency (rank)
23
 
  Time (days)
6.0
 
  DTF
77.08
 
  Cost (% of property value)
7.4
 
  Recovery rate (cents on the dollar)
67.7
 
  Quality of the land administration index (0-30)
15.0
 
  Time (years)
1.5
 
  Reliability of infrastructure index (0-8)
1.0
 
  Cost (% of estate)
18.0
 
  Transparency of information index (0-6)
4.5
 
  Outcome (0 as piecemeal sale and 1 as going concern)
1
 
  Geographic coverage index (0-8)
4.0
 
  Strength of insolvency framework index (0-16)
13.0
 
  Land dispute resolution index (0-8)
5.5
 
  Commencement of proceedings index (0-3)
2.5
 
  Equal access to property rights index (-2-0)
0.0
 
  Management of debtor's assets index (0-6)
5.0
 
 
 
 
  Reorganization proceedings index (0-3)
2.5
 
  Getting Credit (rank)
82
 
  Creditor participation index (0-4)
3.0
 
  DTF
50.00
 
   
 
 
  Strength of legal rights index (0-12)
3.0
 
   
 
 
  Depth of credit information index (0-8)
7.0
 
 
 
 
  Credit registry coverage (% of adults)
0.0
 
   
 
 
  Credit bureau coverage (% of adults)
53.0
 
 
 
 
 

 
   
 
 
 
 
 
 



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