Senegal Business Guide





Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania

Geographic coordinates:
14 00 N, 14 00 W

Map references:

total: 196,722 sq kmcountry comparison to the world: 88
land:192,530 sq km
water:4,192 sq km

Area - comparative:
slightly smaller than South Dakota

Land boundaries:
total: 2,640 km
border countries:The Gambia 740 km, Guinea 330 km, Guinea-Bissau 338 km, Mali 419 km, Mauritania 813 km

531 km

Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone:24 nm
exclusive economic zone:200 nm
continental shelf:200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin

tropical; hot, humid; rainy season (May to November) has strong southeast winds; dry season (December to April) dominated by hot, dry, harmattan wind

generally low, rolling, plains rising to foothills in southeast

    Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point:unnamed elevation southwest of Kedougou 581 m

Natural resources:
fish, phosphates, iron ore

Land use:
arable land: 19.57%
permanent crops:0.28%
other:80.15% (2011)

Irrigated land:
1,197 sq km (2003)

Total renewable water resources:
38.8 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 2.22 cu km/yr (4%/3%/93%)
per capita:221.6 cu m/yr (2002)

Natural hazards:
lowlands seasonally flooded; periodic droughts

Environment - current issues:
wildlife populations threatened by poaching; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification; overfishing

Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified:none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:
westernmost country on the African continent; The Gambia is almost an enclave within Senegal

People and Society

noun: Senegalese (singular and plural)

Ethnic groups:
Wolof 43.3%, Pular 23.8%, Serer 14.7%, Jola 3.7%, Mandinka 3%, Soninke 1.1%, European and Lebanese 1%, other 9.4%

French (official), Wolof, Pulaar, Jola, Mandinka

Muslim 94% (most adhere to one of the four main Sufi brotherhoods), Christian 5% (mostly Roman Catholic), indigenous beliefs 1%

13,300,410 (July 2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 72

Age structure:
0-14 years: 42.7% (male 2,855,431/female 2,828,107)
15-24 years:20.5% (male 1,357,979/female 1,372,107)
25-54 years:30.1% (male 1,825,507/female 2,182,110)
55-64 years:3.7% (male 218,512/female 277,047)
65 years and over:2.9% (male 174,946/female 208,664) (2013 est.)

Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 86.9 %
youth dependency ratio:81.3 %
elderly dependency ratio:5.6 %
potential support ratio:17.9 (2013)

Median age:
total: 18.2 years
male:17.4 years
female:19.1 years (2013 est.)

Population growth rate:
2.51% (2013 est.)

Birth rate:
35.64 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 25

Death rate:
8.85 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 72

Net migration rate:
-1.74 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 156

urban population: 42.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization:3.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:
DAKAR (capital) 2.777 million (2009)

Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years:1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years:0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years:0.83 male(s)/female
55-64 years:0.8 male(s)/female
65 years and over:0.85 male(s)/female
total population:0.94 male(s)/female (2013 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

Maternal mortality rate:
370 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 53.93 deaths/1,000 live birthscountry comparison to the world: 36
male:60.22 deaths/1,000 live births
female:47.44 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 60.57 yearscountry comparison to the world: 192
male:58.58 years
female:62.61 years (2013 est.)

    Total fertility rate:
4.61 children born/woman (2013 est.)country comparison to the world: 27

Contraceptive prevalence rate:
13.1% (2010/11)

Health expenditures:
6% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)

Hospital bed density:
0.3 beds/1,000 population (2008)

Drinking water source:
urban: 93.2% of population
rural: 58.7% of population
total: 73.4% of population
urban: 6.8% of population
rural: 41.3% of population
total: 26.6% of population (2011 est.)

Sanitation facility access:
urban: 67.9% of population
rural: 39.1% of population
total: 51.4% of population
urban: 32.1% of population
rural: 60.9% of population
total: 48.6% of population (2011 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
0.9% (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 51

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
59,000 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 56

HIV/AIDS - deaths:
2,600 (2009 est.)country comparison to the world: 50

Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases:bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases:dengue fever, malaria, and yellow fever
water contact disease:schistosomiasis
respiratory disease:meningococcal meningitis
animal contact disease:rabies (2013)

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
6.8% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
19.2% (2011)country comparison to the world: 37

Education expenditures:
5.6% of GDP (2010)country comparison to the world: 50

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population:49.7%
female:38.7% (2009 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 8 years
male:8 years
female:8 years (2010)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 14.8%country comparison to the world: 85
female:20.1% (2006)


Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Senegal
conventional short form:Senegal
local long form:Republique du Senegal
local short form:Senegal
former:Senegambia (along with The Gambia), Mali Federation

Government type:

name: Dakar
geographic coordinates:14 44 N, 17 38 W
time difference:UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:
14 regions (regions, singular - region); Dakar, Diourbel, Fatick, Kaffrine, Kaolack, Kedougou, Kolda, Louga, Matam, Saint-Louis, Sedhiou, Tambacounda, Thies, Ziguinchor

4 April 1960 (from France); note - complete independence achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960

National holiday:
Independence Day, 4 April (1960)

previous 1959 (preindependence), 1963; latest adopted by referendum 7 January 2001, promulgated 22 January 2001; amended many times, last in 2008 (2011)

Legal system:
civil law system based on French law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court

International law organization participation:
accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction

18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:
chief of state: President Macky SALL (since 2 April 2012)
head of government:Prime Minister Aminata TOURE (since 3 September 2013)
cabinet:Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister in consultation with the president
elections:president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 26 February 2012 with a second round runoff on 25 March 2012 (next to be held 2019); prime minister appointed by the president
election results:Macky SALL elected president; percent of votes in a runoff - Macky SALL 65.8%, Abdoulaye WADE 34.2%

Legislative branch:
unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (150 seats; 90 members elected by direct popular vote and 60 elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms)
elections:National Assembly - last held on 1 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017)
election results:National Assembly results - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Benno Bokk Yakaar coalition 119, PDS 12, Bokk Giss Giss coalition 4, MCRN-Bes Du Nakk 4, PVD 2, MRDS 2, URD 1, AJ/PADS 1, other 5

Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Highest Appeals Court or Cour de Cassation (consists of 13 judges including the court president); Constitutional Council (consists of 5 members including the court president, vice-president, and 3 judges)
judge selection and term of office:Highest Appeals Court judges' tenure NA; Constitutional Council members appointed by the president of the republic to serve 6-year terms with renewal of 3 members every two years
subordinate courts:Court of Appeals; regional and first instance courts

Political parties and leaders:
African Party of Independence [Majhemout DIOP]
Alliance for the Republic-Yakaar [Macky SALL]
Alliance of Forces of Progress or AFP [Moustapha NIASSE]
And-Jef/African Party for Democracy and Socialism or AJ/PADS [Landing SAVANE]
Benno Bokk Yakaar coaltion [Macky SALL]
Benno Siggil Senegal (a coalition of opposition parties)
Bokk Giss Giss coalition [Pape DIOP]
Citizen Movement for National Reform or MCRN-Bes Du Nakk
Democratic League-Labor Party Movement or LD-MPT [Dr. Abdoulaye BATHILY]
Front for Socialism and Democracy/Benno Jubel or FSD/BJ [Cheikh Abdoulaye Bamba DIEYE]
Gainde Centrist Bloc or BGC [Jean-Paul DIAS]
Independence and Labor Party or PIT [Amath DANSOKHO]
Jef-Jel [Talla SYLLA]
National Democratic Rally or RND [Madior DIOUF]
Party for Truth and Development or PVD [Ahmadou Kara MBACKE]
People's Labor Party or PTP [El Hadji DIOUF]
Reform Party or PR [Abdourahim AGNE]
Republican Movement for Socialism and Democracy or MRDS
Rewmi Party [Idrissa SECK]
Senegalese Democratic Party or PDS [Abdoulaye WADE]
Socialist Party or PS [Ousmane Tanor DIENG]
SOPI Coalition [Abdoulaye WADE] (a coalition led by the PDS)
Synergy for Ethics and Transparency [Aminata TALL]
Union for Democratic Renewal or URD [Djibo Leyti KA]

    Political pressure groups and leaders:
other: labor; students; Sufi brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers

International organization participation:

Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Cheikh NIANG (since 13 July 2012)
chancery:2031 Florida Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
telephone:[1] (202) 234-0540
FAX:[1] (202) 332-6315
consulate(s) general:Houston, New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador Lewis LUKENS (since 11 July 2011); note - also accredited to Guinea-Bissau
embassy:Route des Almadies, Dakar
mailing address:B. P. 49, Dakar
telephone:[221] 33-879-4000
FAX:[221] 33-822-2991

Flag description:
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), yellow, and red with a small green five-pointed star centered in the yellow band; green represents Islam, progress, and hope; yellow signifies natural wealth and progress; red symbolizes sacrifice and determination; the star denotes unity and hope

National symbol(s):

National anthem:
name: 'Pincez Tous vos Koras, Frappez les Balafons' (Pluck Your Koras, Strike the Balafons)

lyrics/music:Leopold Sedar SENGHOR/Herbert PEPPER
note:adopted 1960; the lyrics were written by Leopold Sedar SENGHOR, Senegal's first president; the anthem is sometimes played incorporating the Koras (harp-like stringed instruments) and Balafons (types of xylophones) mentioned in the title


Economy - overview:
Senegal relies heavily on donor assistance and foreign direct investment. The country's key export industries are phosphate mining, fertilizer production, and commercial fishing. The country is also working on iron ore and oil exploration projects. After seeing its economy contract by 2.1% in 1993, Senegal made an important turnaround, thanks to an economic reform program backed by the donor community, which led to real growth in GDP averaging over 5% annually during 1995-2007. Annual inflation was pushed down to the single digits. The global economic downturn reduced growth to 2.2% in 2009. The IMF completed a non-dispersing, Policy Support Initiative program in 2010 and approved a new three-year policy support instrument in December 2010 to assist with economic reforms. Senegal also receives disbursements from a $540 million Millennium Challenge Account for infrastructure and agriculture development. In 2012, the economy began to rebound after a weak 2011. The economy continues to suffer from unreliable power supply, which has led to public protests and high unemployment and has prompted migrants to flee Senegal in search of better job opportunities in Europe.

GDP (purchasing power parity):
$26.29 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 119
$25.39 billion (2011 est.)
$24.74 billion (2010 est.)
note:data are in 2012 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):
$13.89 billion (2012 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:
3.5% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 98
2.6% (2011 est.)
4.3% (2010 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):
$2,000 (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 193
$2,000 (2011 est.)
$2,000 (2010 est.)
note:data are in 2012 US dollars

Gross national saving:
19.3% of GDP (2012 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:
peanuts, millet, corn, sorghum, rice, cotton, tomatoes, green vegetables; cattle, poultry, pigs; fish

agricultural and fish processing, phosphate mining, fertilizer production, petroleum refining; iron ore, zircon, and gold mining, construction materials, ship construction and repair

Industrial production growth rate:
0.1% (2012 est.)

Labor force:
5.91 million (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 67

Labor force - by occupation:
agriculture: 77.5%
industry and services:22.5% (2007 est.)

Unemployment rate:
48% (2007 est.)

Population below poverty line:
54% (2001 est.)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.5%
highest 10%:30.1% (2005)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:
41.3 (2001)

revenues: $3.271 billion
expenditures:$4.094 billion (2012 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:
23.5% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 139

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-5.9% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 173

    Public debt:
38.8% of GDP (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 92
35.7% of GDP (2011 est.)

Fiscal year:
calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):
1.4% (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 27
3.4% (2011 est.)

Central bank discount rate:
0.25% (31 December 2010 est.)country comparison to the world: 90
4.25% (31 December 2009 est.)

Commercial bank prime lending rate:
14.3% (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 49
14.5% (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of narrow money:
$3.577 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 110
$3.254 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of broad money:
$5.818 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 122
$5.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:
$4.509 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 116
$4.186 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

Current account balance:
$-1.618 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 131
$-1.459 billion (2011 est.)

$2.382 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 138
$2.414 billion (2011 est.)

Exports - commodities:
fish, groundnuts (peanuts), petroleum products, phosphates, cotton

Exports - partners:
Mali 14.4%, Switzerland 14.1%, India 11.9%, France 4.7%, Guinea 4.2% (2012)

$5.733 billion (2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 124
$5.392 billion (2011 est.)

Imports - commodities:
food and beverages, capital goods, fuels

Imports - partners:
France 16.2%, Nigeria 12.9%, India 6.3%, China 6.3%, UK 4.6% (2012)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$2.082 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 120
$1.946 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Debt - external:
$4.221 billion (31 December 2012 est.)country comparison to the world: 128
$4.32 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Exchange rates:
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar -
510.53 (2012 est.)
471.87 (2011 est.)
495.28 (2010)
472.19 (2009)
447.81 (2008)


Electricity - production:
2.769 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Electricity - consumption:
2.22 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138

Electricity - exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Electricity - imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130

Electricity - installed generating capacity:
638,000 kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 131

Electricity - from fossil fuels:
99.7% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 174

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 196

Electricity - from other renewable sources:
0.3% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 87

Crude oil - production:
0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208

Crude oil - exports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179

Crude oil - imports:
15,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73

    Crude oil - proved reserves:
0 bbl (1 January 2013 es)
country comparison to the world: 182

Refined petroleum products - production:
15,100 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 100

Refined petroleum products - consumption:
40,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Refined petroleum products - exports:
561.8 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Refined petroleum products - imports:
23,760 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 98

Natural gas - production:
20 million cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Natural gas - consumption:
20 million cu m (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Natural gas - exports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 178

Natural gas - imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 127

Natural gas - proved reserves:
NA cu m

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
7.088 million Mt (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 112


Telephones - main lines in use:
338,200 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 110

Telephones - mobile cellular:
11.47 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 73

Telephone system:
general assessment: good system with microwave radio relay, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable in trunk system
domestic:above-average urban system with a fiber-optic network; nearly two-thirds of all fixed-line connections are in Dakar where a call-center industry is emerging; expansion of fixed-line services in rural areas needed; mobile-cellular service is expanding rapidly
international:country code - 221; the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic cable provides connectivity to Europe and Asia while Atlantis-2 provides connectivity to South America; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2010)

    Broadcast media:
state-run Radiodiffusion Television Senegalaise (RTS) operates 2 TV stations; a few private TV subscription channels rebroadcast foreign channels without providing any local news or programs; RTS operates a national radio network and a number of regional FM stations; many community and private-broadcast radio stations are available; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are accessible on FM in Dakar (2007)

Internet country code:

Internet hosts:
237 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 197

Internet users:
1.818 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 76


20 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 136

Airports - with paved runways
total: 9
over 3,047 m:2
1,524 to 2,437 m:6
914 to 1,523 m:1 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways
total: 11
1,524 to 2,437 m:7
914 to 1,523 m:3
under 914 m:
1 (2013)

gas 43 km; refined products 8 km (2013)

total: 906 km
country comparison to the world: 92
narrow gauge:906 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)

total: 14,008 kmcountry comparison to the world: 125
paved:4,099 km (includes 7 km of expressways)
unpaved:9,909 km (2003)

1,000 km (primarily on the Senegal, Saloum, and Casamance rivers) (2012)
country comparison to the world: 64

Merchant marine
total: 1
country comparison to the world: 150
by type:passenger/cargo 1 (2010)

Ports and terminals
major seaport(s): Dakar


Military branches
Senegalese Armed Forces: Army, Senegalese National Navy (Marine Senegalaise, MNS), Senegalese Air Force (Armee de l'Air du Senegal) (2013)

Military service age and obligation
18 years of age for voluntary military service; 20 years of age for selective conscript service; service obligation is 2 years; women have been accepted into military service since 2008 (2013)

Manpower available for military service
males age 16-49: 2,699,196
females age 16-49:3,018,565 (2010 est.)

    Manpower fit for military service
males age 16-49: 1,788,493
females age 16-49:2,133,370 (2010 est.)

Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually
male: 145,509
female:145,064 (2010 est.)

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international
The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau attempt to stem separatist violence, cross border raids, and arms smuggling into their countries from Senegal's Casamance region, and in 2006, respectively accepted 6,000 and 10,000 Casamance residents fleeing the conflict; 2,500 Guinea-Bissau residents fled into Senegal in 2006 to escape armed confrontations along the border

    Refugees and internally displaced persons
refugees (country of origin): 13,702 (Mauritania) (2012)
IDPs:10,000-40,000 (clashes between government troops and separatists in Casamance region) (2012)

Illicit drugs
transshipment point for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine moving to Europe and North America; illicit cultivator of cannabis

Information provided by CIA - The World Fact Book

Doing Business in Senegal 2014



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Information provided by The World Bank Group